Q.1) Signing of BECA provides a new path to India-US defense cooperation. Critically Analyze (250 words)

Why this question?

After LEMOA and COMCASA, New Delhi and Washington have signed BECA, sealing a framework of mutual trust and long-term military and strategic cooperation.


Mention in a brief about the standoff with China


  • Background of foundational agreements
  • Details about BECA
  • Significance to India
  • Mention few drawbacks
  • Few suggestions


Conclude by summarising the above discussion.


Q.2) The States have shrunk their authority in determining Budget spending (Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act ) and setting tax rates (GST).Critically analyse the reasons behind the shift in authority towards the Center. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • Because of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) compensation issues, Centre-State relations have plumbed the depths. 

Introduction: Mention issues related to cooperative federalism.


  • Authority migration towards the Centre in case of GST
  • Reasons behind
    • Economic and normative reasons include efficiency, equity, stabilisation, economic growth, and balanced development, among others. 
    • Political reasons: The greater the degree of party centralisation, the higher the possibility of federal centralisation. 
    • Party linkages between different levels of government are crucial to both the making and the maintenance of federal compacts.

Conclusion: A diversity of interests is the badge of federalism, and there will be constant negotiation and renegotiation. It is this tension that keeps a federation ticking. The Center should uphold the principles of cooperative federalism.