Q.1) Though his name is often mired in controversies, VD Savarkar’s contributing ideas on rationalism, modernism and social reforms need a relook. Discuss (15marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The Prime Minister of India paid tribute to Veer Savarkar on his jayanti remembering him for his bravery, motivating several others to join the freedom struggle and emphasis on social reform.

Intro - A brief about VD Savarkar and his participation in India’s freedom struggle.

Body - Controversy around his name and his philosophy - for ex, criticized as communalist right-wing leader etc. Then mention his contribution as a social reformer, rationalist, modernist.

Conclude - Though evokes controversy, but his positive contributions can’t be overlooked.


Q.2) The dispute over Kalapani between Nepal and India has revived.In the light of recent controversy, highlight the underlying causes of the current scenario and suggest measures to bring the relations to normal.

Why this question:

Nepal has published a revised official map incorporating the territory from the Limpiyadhura source of the Kali to Kalapani and Lipulekh pass in the northeast of the triangular region as its territory.

  • The new alignment adds 335 sq km to Nepali territory, territory that has never been reflected in a Nepali map for nearly 170 years.


Highlight the recent controversy over Kalapani and the new map released by Nepal which includes indian territory.


Discuss the underlying causes

  • Recent cause: nepal Nationalism
  • Treaty of sugauli
  • Differing interpretation


 Political maturity is needed to find creative solutions that can be mutually acceptable.Such brinkmanship only breeds mistrust and erodes the goodwill at the people-to-people level. 


Q3) India’s One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) initiative is seen as an opportunity to be taking a lead in evolving global strategies. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

  • India has recently invited bids from consultants to make an ambitious cross-border power grid plan that would seek to transfer solar power generated in one region to feed the electricity demands of others.


  • Mention that India’s Prime Minister has recently called for connecting solar energy supply across borders, with the mantra of ‘One Sun One World One Grid’ (OSOWOG).


  • About OSOWOG
    • Vision
    • Current progress
  • Mention relevance of ISA in brief
  • Significance of the move for India
    • India’s calling card on climate change
    • A tool of foreign policy 
    • backdrop of China’s attempt to co-opt countries into its ambitious One Belt One Road initiative(OBOR) and the withdrawal of the US from the Paris climate deal.
    • Neighborhood first policy


Sustainable development


Q.4) Indo-China standoff in Ladakh is set in a different geopolitical background than it was in Doklam standoff. Discuss. Also explain the institutional framework at Indo-China border that prevents escalation to a level of war.

Keywords for answer


  • Briefly introduce the recent standoff between India and China at Ladakh.


  • Set the current geopolitical setup that has changed from the days of Doklam.
  • Corona Virus and mounting pressure on China regarding lack of communications, law suits, reparations, etc.
  • US- China trade war and Superpower rivalry
  • Geoeconomic setup: Global economy staring at recession, global lockdown, no imminent sign of recovery
  • China’s political setup and Regional politics: Xi Xinping Chinese dream, South China Sea, taiwan, Hongkong
  • With respect to India: Indo- US closeness, Existing border issues,1962 War, India building infrastructure in the border regions.
  • The institutional framework at Sino-India border: Commander level talks, Hotline facility, etc


  • Peaceful Resolution of conflict
  • Informal summits like Wuhan, Mamallapuram to settle border issues
  • Asian century - India and China as the growth engines of the world.


Q.5) The pandemic is a colossal challenge but it may create fresh opportunities to bring India and Africa closer together. Discuss.

Why this question?

  • India had planned to host the Fourth India Africa Forum Summit in September this year. However, the COVID-19 pandemic may cause it to be delayed. 

Introduction to the answer

  • A brief background of India-Africa relations
  • Indo-Africa cooperation to tackle Coronavirus crisis.


  • Areas of cooperation between India-Africa 
  • Significance of India-Africa relations
  • Challenges for India-Africa relations

Way forward

  • Pandemic help: 
    • The Ministry of External Affairs has already extended the e-ITEC course on “COVID-19 Pandemic: Prevention and Management Guidelines for Healthcare Professionals” to healthcare workers in Africa. 
    • The Aarogya Setu App and the E-Gram Swaraj App for rural areas for mapping COVID-19 are technological achievements that could be shared with Africa. 
    • E-learning: Since the movement of African students to India for higher education has been disrupted, India may expand the e-VidyaBharti (tele education) project to establish an India-Africa Virtual University. 
  • Fund for Africa
  • Hosting virtual summits
  • Leveraging international relations