current-affairs-based-mains-drill-29-july-2020

 

Q.1) Anti-defection law has not been very effective in curbing the defections. Discuss the reasons and suggest the measures to make the law more effective. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The Bahujan Samaj Party(BSP) has approached the Supreme Court of India to win back its 6 MLAs, who have joined the ruling party in Rajasthan.

Introduction - A brief about the 10th schedule.

Body -

  • Salient features of 10th sch and 91st Constitutional amendment.
  • Issues associated with defection
  • Challenges faced by the anti-defection law reducing its effectiveness.

Way forward - Highlight the recommendations of NCRWC, Law commission, Kihoto Hollohan etc.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.

 

Q.2) The COVID -19 pandemic has induced reverse migration from the Gulf region towards South Asia. Discuss. 15 marks (250 words)

Why this question:

The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent economic distress has considerably impacted the South Asian Migrant workers in the Gulf region.

Intro:

South Asians constitute the largest chunk of migration into Gulf region, with India occupying the numero uno position amongst south asian nations.

Body:

Can tell about some features of workers:

  • Males dominate the workforce and are employed in construction sector
  • Live in small room with multiple people for saving money
  • Send huge remittances to their countries of origin
  • Doesn’t have robust government security net like the natives of gulf region

Pandemic is inducing reverse migration:

  • Shortage of food and other basic necessities
  • Salary Cuts and Retrenchment (Most prominent in construction sector)
  • Lack of access to medical services and medicines (Earlier Kerala Government was providing this but suspension of air travel halted the process)
  • No safety net, welfare mechanisms, or labour rights
  • COVID-19 spike in these labour camps 
  • Growing demand for nationalisation of labour in gulf region

Steps Taken for the Workers:

  • The Indian Government has repatriated over 7 lakh NRIs from various destinations under the Vande Bharat mission and a similar move is followed by other south asian economies.
  • It has also announced the SWADES initiative that focuses on skill mapping of citizens returning from abroad.
  • The Kerala Government has announced Dream Kerala initiative to utilise the diverse skill sets of migrants.
  • The Kerala High Court in July directed the Government to set up a mechanism to assist workers in seeking compensation from their immigrant country.
    • The order was based on a petition filed by Lawyers Beyond Borders, an international network of legal experts.
  • Bangladesh has announced a special package for the resettlement of return migrants which includes money on arrival, money to launch self-employment projects, and compensation for the families of those who died abroad from COVID-19. 
  • The Overseas Employment Corporation in Pakistan has come out with special programmes to upgrade the skills of returnees.

Way Ahead:

  • The countries of origin are now faced with the challenge of rehabilitating, reintegrating, and resettling these migrant workers. 
  • The past three major crises in the Gulf – the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the global economic crisis, and Nitaqat in Saudi Arabia – had not triggered a massive return migration. 
  • The need of the hour is a comprehensive migration management system for countries that send workers as well as those that receive them. No South Asian country except Sri Lanka has an adequate migration policy. 
  • The pandemic has given us an opportunity to voice the rights of South Asian migrants and to bring the South Asia-Gulf migration corridor within the ambit of SAARC, the ILO, and UN conventions.