Q.1) The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act [FRA] 2006 was enacted to correct the historical injustice. Do you think that the law has achieved its intended objectives?

Why this question? - According to new guidelines drafted by the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA), Gram Sabhas will have more power in the management of community forest rights (CFR) and habitat rights. 

Intro - A brief about the FRA


  • Intended objectives
  • Success story so far
  • Challenges

Way ahead - Proper implementation etc

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion


Q.2) The refusal to grant bail deprives individuals of liberty by confining them in jails without trial and conviction. Discuss the need for reform of the bail system in India. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • The Supreme Court asked judges to protect personal liberty and the right of ordinary people to bail.

Introduction: Mention in brief the objective of bail in the criminal justice system.


  • Significance of bail
  • Concerns
  • Pending bail pleas: The SC highlighted that 91,568 bail pleas were pending in High Courts, while 1.96 lakh bail applications were pending in the district courts.
  • Judicial discretion
  • High bail amounts
  • Preposterous Bail conditions: In the 1978 Supreme Court case of Moti Ram v. State of Madhya Pradesh, the court identified the issue of unreasonably high sureties as a human rights problem. 

Way forward: 

  • Addressing judicial discretion
  • The grant of bail on a personal bond without sureties

Conclusion: Summarize the discussion.

Q.3) Maintaining 4 percent inflation is appropriate for India as targeting a lower rate could impart deflationary bias to the monetary policy. Comment. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • According to a RBI paper, maintaining the inflation target at 4 per cent is appropriate for India.


  • Mention in brief about RBI’s monetary policy and its primary objective.


  • Flexible inflation targeting framework 
  • Significance: 
    • Price stability is a necessary precondition to sustainable growth.
    • A target set too below the trend imparts a deflationary bias to monetary policy.
    • A target that is fixed above-trend renders monetary policy too expansionary and prone to inflationary shocks and unanchored expectations.

Conclusion: Summarize the above points.