Q.1 “The Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Act,2018 is an attempt to make Indian anti-graft law more wider, stringent and rational.” Comment. (15 marks - 250 words)
Why this question? - The recent SC judgement ruling that bribery and corruption in a deemed university can be tried under the Prevention of Corruption Act, has once again brought the PC Act in light.
Intro - The 2018 Act is an attempt to amend the 1988 Act.
- Mention few amended provisions, then tell how these amendments are more wider, stringent and rational then 1988 act. For example, Taking gifts is a graft now, Bribe givers can be punished now, etc.
- You can also mention if the 2018 act has certain lacunas like prior permission of government is required.
Way forward - Proper implementation.
Conclusion - Tell how the recent SC judgement has further made the PC Act more wider.
Q.2 Critics have questioned undertaking human challenge trials for Covid-19, a potentially deadly disease for even those who are less at risk. When conducted, human challenge studies should be undertaken with abundant forethought, caution, and oversight.Critically analyse with reference to the Indian scenario. (15 marks-250 words)
Why this question was asked:
As laboratories around the world race to develop a vaccine for the novel coronavirus, many people have volunteered to take part in a controversial testing method called human challenge trials. As of April 27, a global initiative called 1DaySooner had registered 3,817 people in 52 countries who had signed up for such trials.
What are human challenge trials?
- Human challenge trials: challenges faced
- The serial and independent review of a single protocol at multiple ethics committees, leading to different queries results in significant loss of time and resources.
- Informed consent and the issue of audio-visual (AV) recording
- The ethical concerns Vs. the urgent need for vaccine(Coronavirus crisis)
- Mention a 2016 document titled ‘Human Challenge Trials for Vaccine Development: regulatory considerations’, by the World Health Organization (WHO).
- Regulatory framework for drug trials in India: SUGAM portal for trial registration and provision of a pre-submission
Conclusion: Provide a way forward
- Development of national clinical trial infrastructure: Researchers in a low- middle- income (LMIC) set-up need support and training to conduct clinical trials on their own or collaborate with other researchers.
- The importance of educating different stakeholders, including CDSCO functionaries, IEC members, academicians,
- Functioning and training of ethics committees
- Informed consent
- Compensation for trial-related death or injury
- Clinical trial insurance cover
The Indian scenario is witnessing a paradigm change with new regulations and capacity-strengthening initiatives of research ethics committees. These initiatives can foster more need-based research by providing a congenial research environment while at the same time protecting the rights and interests of study participants.
Q.3 Should the rich be taxed more during an economic slowdown or economic crisis ? Substantiate your argument with an example of Global taxation systems.
Narrowing of Tax Base
Global examples of fiscal stimulus
Q.4 Discuss the need to maintain a balance between fundamental right to Privacy, and use of data for State’s social welfare obligation.
Fundamental Right to Privacy - Puttaswamy Judgment
FRs and DPSP tussle in brief
Privacy in modern times - a myth or reality ?
Way Forward - EU-GDPR, Data Protection Law, BN Srikrishna committee
Q.5 How did Modern Indian Painting as an art form developed and what are its key characteristics ? Explain (10 marks)
Why this question was asked:
29th April is Birth Anniversary of Raja Ravi Verma who is regarded as one of finest Indian Modern Painter
Start by commenting on its origin w.r.t to Britishers and Europeans and how they introduced the same in India
Development of Modern Indian Painting:
- Started in Calcutta in the late nineteenth century.
- The old traditions of painting had more or less died out in Bengal and new schools of art were started by the British.
- Initially, protagonists of Indian art such as Raja Ravi Varma drew on Western traditions and techniques including oil paint and easel painting.
- An attempt to stem this cultural morass was made by Abanindranath Tagore under whose inspired leadership came into being a new school of painting which was distinctly nostalgic and romantic to start with but this new school lost significance in 1940s.
- a certain freedom from invention,
- the acceptance of an eclectic approach which has placed artistic expression in the international perspective as against the regional,
- a positive elevation of technique which has become both proliferous and supreme,
- the emergence of the artist as a distinct individual.
By saying the paintings today acquire a key place under the Indian painting framework and are constantly evolving.
(Here new changes like artists have reached near non-figurative and totally non-figurative levels.
Projection of the disturbed social unrest and instability with the predicament of man as the main theme;
A new interest in vague surrealist approaches and in fantasy etc. can be mentioned)
Q.6 Corona has not only changed the way of life but it also has huge impact over the state machinery.In the light of this statement mention the problems faced by the criminal justice system during the pandemic.
Why this question: The pandemic has compelled the government to suspend work, movement, businesses, services, liberty and more. The Constitution itself, however, cannot be suspended and Without legal practitioners being classified as essential, fundamental rights cannot be realised.
Intro: define criminal justice system.
- Issues faced by criminal justice system: like maintaining law and order
- Issues faced by people: like delayed justice
Suggest some steps to improve it .for example e-courts, CCNTS etc
Q.7 Explain the various types of water pollution indicators and their significance.(150 words)
Why this question?
The recent Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) report says that even the lockdown has not significantly reduced pollution in the Ganga river.
India has just 4% of the world's fresh water but 16% of the global population.In this scenario keeping the water,pollution free remains the top priority for the nation.
Introduce pollution indicators and their meaning
- Dissolved oxygen (DO)
- Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD)
- Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD)
- Mention the range of values of these indicators and associated implications.
- Innovative steps can be taken specific to the values of pollution indicators.
Government programmes such as the National mission on clean Ganga and their achievements and path to the future action can be referred to.