Q.1) Discuss the contribution of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to the Freedom Struggle Movement of India and in shaping post-independence India. (15maks - 250words)

Why this question? - The Prime Minister of India has paid tribute to the first Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on his death anniversary

Intro - Influential leader, political heir of Gandhi and 1st PM in 1947.

Body - Divide in 3 parts - Contribution in Freedom Struggle, Post-independence India, Criticism.

Conclude - Tell that the legacy of Democratic socialism, secularism, non-alignment, panchsheel is in more need today than ever before.


Q.2) Cyclone Amphan is causing havoc around the eastern coast. In this regard suggest the strategy to counter and mitigate such disasters in future. Comment.  15 marks (250 words)

Why this question:

Amphan has wreaked destruction across West Bengal and Odisha, showing India needs a focused approach to cyclical natural disasters.. 


It is a tropical cyclone which originated in the bay of bengal and has hit the coasts of west bengal and odisha .


Caused Havoc:

  • Financial: In less than two days, Bengal lost around Rs 1 lakh crore. 
  • Social: The cyclone left 80 dead, hundreds of thousands homeless, uprooted trees, ravaged houses, marooned dwellings, knocked out electricity and phone lines.
  • Infrastructural: It flooded cities and villages, plundered embankments, fencings and boundaries. 
  • Environmental: It wreaked ecological destruction and devastation, especially in the eco-sensitive Sundarbans. Not least was the ruination of Kolkata’s iconic Great Banyan Tree, among the world’s largest.

Strategy to counter and mitigate:

  • We need five “Ps” to cope up with recurring disasters — 
    • prominence, as in the role of governments; 
    • a pool of funds; 
    • planning, especially long-term, of rehabilitation and development; 
    • policy qua institutional support; and 
    • preparedness qua countermeasures.


  • Prevention is always better than cure, and such countermeasures will be highly effective as well as cost-effective. 
  • There is light after the longest tunnels and only with these five “Ps” can we dream of effectively mitigating and minimising the impact of disaster.


Q.3) Draw a comparison between Direct and Indirect monetization (OMO) of the government's deficit. Should direct monetisation be allowed ? Also, assess the risks involved.

Keywords for Answer


  • Briefly introduce the monetization process/ set the context with announcement of the government keeping her options open on direct monetisation of the deficit by the RBI.


  • Compare and Contrast the OMO and Direct Monetization
  • Like the degree of inflationary risk involved, impact on bond yields, etc.
  • Present a case for and case against direct monetisation - like Not enough savings in the economy to finance government borrowing, the spike in bond yields, markets will be apprehensive that the constraints on fiscal policy are being abandoned, etc..


  • Conclude with the need for direct monetization on a case to case basis, If the government is not able to finance its deficit at reasonable rates, then it really doesn’t have much choice.Also, if bond yields shoot up in real terms, there might be a case for monetisation, strictly as a one-time measure. 


Q.4) The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology(Meity) announced that it has released the source code of Aarogya Setu app.In the light of this move by the government, discuss the privacy concerns regarding arogya setu app and suggest a way ahead.

Why this question:  the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology(Meity) announced that it has released the source code of Aarogya Setu app to promote transparency and collaboration with the software developer community.

Intro: Discuss the significance of data security


Write about the arogya setu app and its key features.

Then, discuss the privacy concerns with respect to Puttaswamy judgement and data protection bill.

Discuss the Significance of releasing the source code of the app.

Based on the discussion above conclude your answer


Q5)While the occurrence of the heatwave is a normal phenomenon in the Indian subcontinent, the recent heatwave is considered an unusual one. Discuss (250 words)

Why this question?

For the past five days, Rajasthan, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra have been experiencing severe to very severe heatwave conditions.


Mention the severity and occurrences of the recent summer heatwave in India eg Churu in Rajasthan


  • Phenomena  of heatwave
  • Occurrence of heatwave in India
    • Past experiences
    • No of days it usually lasts
    • Core Heat Zone areas in India
  •  Current unusual heatwave
    •  Unusual timing
    • Reasons behind unusual timings
    • Cyclone Amphan
  • Suggestions
    • Establish Early Warning System and Inter-Agency Coordination
    • Capacity building/training program for health care professional etc


Conclude by focussing on 5P’s of disaster management.