Q.1) To address the current crises, India has to reconsider its foreign policy trajectory. Comment (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - In the backdrop of setbacks, especially in the neighbourhood, the country has to reconsider its diplomacy’s trajectory.

Intro - In the current phase of transitional geopolitics, India's foreingn policy of Non-Alignment has transformed into Multi Alignment.

Body - 

  1. Challenges faced by IFP - Multiple fronts - Neighbourhood, Its relations with major powers (US), US-China trade war etc.
  2. India’s current approach with its shortcomings.

Way ahead - It is a big power with one of the world’s biggest militaries, a natural naval force in the Indian Ocean and has  resources to claim its due in global politics. But, it needs to build strategic depth.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Though India is among the top 10 water-rich countries almost a third of the country is parched. Discuss the concerns with the Ground water management in India. Suggest way forward that makes water use efficient, sustainable. (15M, 250 Words)

Why this question?

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has set stringent conditions for commercial groundwater use, asking authorities to be tightfisted in granting permits, initiating swift punitive action in case of breaches and mandating third-party compliance audit of businesses every year.

Introduction to the answer

  • Discuss briefly about the ground water crisis in India
  • Depleting water table: Though India is among the top 10 water-rich countries almost a third of the country is parched. According to the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), blocks in 256 districts are water-stressed.
    • Groundwater levels in 1,186 blocks in these districts are overexploited, which means people here have used up over 100 per cent of the available groundwater.


  • Discuss about Ground water regulation in India such as  Environment Protection Act, Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA), etc
  • Concerns with groundwater management like weak central authority and laws, subsidised electricity, unsustainable agriculture. etc.

Conclusion – Suggest the way forward.

  • Curbing extensive groundwater withdrawals will require limiting agricultural electricity subsidies provided by state governments and rationing of power.
    • Other strategies include adopting more efficient irrigation techniques and training farmers on water conservation practices.
  • Incentivising conservation through regulations:  There is a need to replace the command and control mode in a legislation with a more protective mode that incentivises participatory, social norms of groundwater management and governance.”


Q.3) The Governor is the head of state but is often charged with a parisian behaviour towards the centre. Comment. 10 marks (150 words)

Why this question:

Rajasthan Governor Kalraj Mishra returned the fresh proposal by the state Cabinet – seeking to convene a session of the Assembly on 31 July which has raised fresh legal questions on the powers of the Governor.


As per the constitution there shall be a governor for each state which will act as the nominal head of state.


Powers of Governor:

  • Being the head of state, the Governor is vested with certain executive, legislative and judicial powers.
  • He or she also possesses certain discretionary or emergency powers.
  • Apart from Discretionary Powers, all needs to be exercised on aid and advice of the Council of Ministers. 

Partisan Behaviour:

  • Give examples of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan 
  • Tell the appointment process and no security of tenure are the basic reason for the partisan behaviour

Steps to make governor act in a neutral way:

  • Sarkaria Commission and the Punchhi Commission report needs to be adopted for reforming the office of Governor.
  • The SC in BP Singhal versus Union of India (2010) case curtailed the power of the Centre to dismiss state governments arbitrarily, this must be followed in letter and spirit so that the Governor is not induced to portray partisan behaviour. 
  • There needs to be a cooling off period for retired civil servants before they assume office as the Governor or Lieutenant Governor. This would avoid nexus between civil servants and their political masters making post-retirement postings only merit based. 
  • A comprehensive 'Code of Conduct' approved by all stakeholders including the state governments and central government should be evolved.
  • It must contain the principles which the governor must follow while exercising his powers as well as which will guide the conduct of the central government. 
  • There must be a fixed tenure for the governor so as to refrain him from indulging in partisan behaviour. Further the Chief Minister of state must have a say in his appointment.


The  impartial role of governor is sine qua non for the successful working of democracy. He must refrain from aligning himself to any political ideology. The virtue of impartiality must be withheld to  strengthen and sustain the federal structure of our Indian Polity.