Q.1) The Covid-19 pandemic is a testing time for India’s Neighbourhood First Policy. Comment (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - In the year 2020, India has faced a triad of challenges in its neighbourhood from China.

Intro - How pandemic has affected India and its neighbours.


  • Role played by India in the region during the pandemic
  • Challenges from China - Influence in the region, Stand off at LAC etc
  • India’s response

Way ahead - Solving issues bilaterally and diplomatically with neighbourhood as priority.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) What are the factors which threaten water security in India?  Suggest a way forward for ensuring water security in India?

Why this question?

  • Since its launch in August 2019, the Centre’s ambitious flagship scheme Jal Jeevan Mission ( JJM), which in partnership with the States seeks to ensure that every rural household of the country gets assured drinking water supply by 2024, has achieved 32.3% coverage of tap connections in rural India, emerging as a key scheme.

Introduction: Define water security. Mention the significance of water security in India.


Reasons for Water Stress and Water Scarcity:

  • Inefficient water management and uneven distribution
  • Improper water irrigation
  • Government several policies to farmers for providing free electricity and financial support for water extraction 
  • Rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth
  • Water pollution
  • Poor water storage
  • Poor legislation on groundwater extraction

Way forward: 

  • institutional processes for dissemination of knowledge about water resource management
  • adequate access to quality water
  • robust long-term planning and preparation for droughts and other contingencies.

Conclusion:  Summarize the above points