Q.1) In order to minimize socio-economic inequalities within communities, many states in India have enacted laws to give preferential treatment to the most vulnerable. In this context, critically examine the concept of sub-categorisation within Scheduled Castes. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - A five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court has reopened the legal debate on sub-categorisation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for reservations.

Intro - Define briefly the phenomena of sub-categorisation with examples.

Body - 

  • Highlight the constitutional provisions.
  • Need for sub-categorisation.
  • Challenges.

Way ahead - How to overcome the challenges.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion


Q.2) A National Recruitment Agency (NRA) is a step towards ease of living towards young job aspirants and cooperative federalism. Comment (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - Recently, the Union Cabinet has decided to set up a National Recruitment Agency (NRA) to conduct a common preliminary examination for various recruitments in the central government.

Intro - A brief about NRA.

Body -

  • Need to create the NRA.
  • Salient features.
  • How it will ensure ease of living and cooperative federalism.

Way ahead - Challenges that need to be addressed.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.3) The Centre offered two options for borrowing by States to meet the GST compensation shortfall. Discuss (10 M, 150 Words)

Why this question?

The Goods and Services Tax (GST) Council recently met to discuss on compensating states for revenue shortfall. Thus the question.


  • Define GST compensation, Compensation cess and relevant constitutional provisions


  • GST compensation shortfall and reasons behind (in brief)
  • Constraints: Fall in GST revenue
  • Two options for borrowing by States to meet the shortfall.
  • Other options: rationalise GST rates, cover more items under the compensation cess or increase the cess, or recommend higher borrowing by states to be repaid by the future collection into the compensation fund

Conclusion: Summarize the above points.


Q.4)India has the capability to become a reliable weapons supplier to friendly nations and to consolidate its position as the net security provider in the Indian Ocean region. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

Indian PM recently said that India has the capability to become a reliable weapons supplier to friendly nations.


Mention status of defence production and its potential


  • Background
  • Government measures to boost domestic defence manufacturing
    • FDI through automatic route:
    • Negative import list
    • Corporatisation of the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB)
    • Making India suitable for foreign OEMs:
    • Defence infrastructure upgradation
    • Research and development in defence sector
    • iDEX initiative
    • Mention in detail about Defence Production & Export Promotion Policy (DPEPP) 2020 etc
  • Challenges ahead
  • Mention few suggestions


  • Conclude by suggesting an efficient implementation of various initiatives.