Q.1) Remembering Dadabhai Naraoji’s brand of nationalism is the need of the hour for India as a nation. Comment (10 Marks - 150 words)

Why this question? - Dadabhai Naoroji’s legacy of an inclusive India is worth remembering in the time of chauvinism and anti-intellectualism that animates the current leadership and running counter to the traditions of Indian nationalism.

Intro - A brief about Dadabhai Naraoji.

Body - 

What is Naraoji’s brand of nationalism? - outreach to minorities, stressed on diversity etc.

Challenges faced by Indian nationalism at present - stark majoritarianism, chauvinism etc.

Conclusion - Hence, remembering Dadabhai Naraoji’s brand of nationalism is the need of the hour for India as a nation.


Q.2) Why are the Himalayas more prone to earthquakes? Discuss (10 Marks - 150 words)

Why this question? - A study in the Tuting-Tidding Suture Zone (TTSZ) in the Eastern Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh, has revealed that the area is generating moderate earthquakes at two different depths.

Intro - A brief about earthquakes with examples of some of the major ones that occurred in India.

Body - 

  • Geographical distributions of EQs in India. Draw a map for the same.
  • Reasons why Himalayas are more prone - Young mountains, underthrusting of Indian plate under Eurasian plate etc.

Conclusion - Summarize based on the above discussion.


Q.3) Governor has been given discretionary powers for smooth and effective functioning but does the same extends to undermining the elected government of the day. Comment 15 marks (250 words).

Why this question:

The governor is not adhering to the advice of Rajasthan Government for convening an assembly session for trust vote.


Explain Article 163 of Constitution which gives him discretionary power


Tell about discretionary powers of governor:

  • Constitutional Discretion
  • Situational Discretion

Explain the extent of Discretionary power:

  •  Nabam Rebia versus Deputy Speaker 2016 judgement under which the SC held that - 
    • A Governor cannot employ his ‘discretion’, and should strictly abide by the “aid and advice” of the Cabinet to summon the House.
    • The Governor can summon, prorogue and dissolve the House only on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as the head. And not at his own.
    • It is an accepted principle that in a parliamentary democracy with a responsible form of government, the powers of the Governor as Constitutional or formal head of the State should not be enlarged at the cost of the real executive, viz. the Council of Ministers.
    • The Supreme Court highlighted how Article 163 of the Constitution does not give the Governor a “general discretionary power to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers.
    • It has limited discretionary powers and even in this limited area, his [Governor’s] choice of action should not be arbitrary or fanciful. It must be a choice dictated by reason, actuated by good faith and tempered by caution.


Must use discretion in not merely letter but as per spirit of the constitution. He must remember that he is not  merely a centre’s representative but nominal head of the state as well.