Q1. The Bhakti movement received a remarkable re-orientation with the advent of Basavanna. Discuss. (10 marks: 150 words)

Why this question? - Questions from the Bhakti movement have been repeatedly asked in GS1 (Art and Culture) in UPSC(Mains).

Intro: Born in 1131 AD, Basavannawas a 12th-century philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India.

Body: Social reformer, Vachanas, Sharana movement, Anubhava Mantapa, inspired Virashaiva, Kalyan Rajya, Foundation of Democracy.

Conclusion: Because of all his contributions the present day welfare state has been evolved in India.


Q2)What do you understand by the term sixth scheduled areas?Also elucidate on administration of the sixth scheduled areas(250 words)

Why this question:

Elections were scheduled to be held for the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) on April 4 but were deferred indefinitely in view of the COVID-19 pandemic.In this scenario Governor’s rule seems likely.

Intro: Vulnerability of tribal population of the country and the need of special attention through specific provisions for them.


1.Meaning of sixth schedule areas while referring to Article 244 

2.States comprising sixth schedule areas

3.Autonomous district councils(Composition,elections and powers)

4.Role of the governor in administration

Way ahead:

Mention in brief problems of 3Fs(funds,functioning and functionaries) and their solutions


Q3) With the US levelled allegations of low yield nuclear testing by China, Russia amid the COVID-19 pandemic, do you think that the global order is getting pushed for a new nuclear arms race ? Also Discuss India’s position in this regard.

Why this question:

  • Arms race has been an important area of coverage in IR syllabus. Also it is featured in India’s internal security nuclear doctrine.

Intro: Recent event of alleged low yield nuclear testing.


  • CTBT Ban, Cold War Politics
  • Problems, Failure of CTBT Ban
  • India and CTBT
  • India’s position on Nuclear disarmament

Way ahead:

  • Conclude with current context -INF, Cancellation of Iran Nuclear Deal 

Q4. Judgement in Kesavananda Bharati Case created a safety valve against majoritarianism and authoritarianism. Comment.

Why this question: 

Exactly 47 years ago, the Supreme Court passed its landmark judgment in Kesavananda Bharati vs State of Kerala, considered among the most significant constitutional cases in India’s judicial history.


Amendment procedure in the constitution or define basic structure doctrine


Background of Kesavananda bharati case and the judgement.

Explain How it is a safety valve.


Significance of basic structure doctrine or conclude with recent judgements which upholds importance of Basic structure doctrine like IR coelho case.


Q5) The weak consensus of all ASEAN countries in negotiating with China on the South China issue is a big challenge for resolving the issue. Discuss.

Why this question?

While most countries in the Indo-Pacific region are battling the coronavirus pandemic, China has been active in the South China Sea, taking aggressive action against Indonesia and Vietnam.

Intro: About South China Sea

Body:Explain the following Keywords:

  • The weak consensus of all ASEAN countries 
  • Discuss: Provide evidence for or against the argument. Also enlist other challenges. Arrive at a conclusion.

Conclusion: Mention the importance of carrying forward the Code of Conduct negotiations with ASEAN