Q.1) It is the frightening prospect of a powerful, belligerent and hegemonic China that has helped New Delhi build its relationship with Washington in recent times. Critically analyse (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - As the campaigning to the US President poll reaches the concluding phase, a look at how the Chinese angle has played an important role in the evolution of  bilateral ties between India and US in the recent.

Intro - Recent developments.

Body - 

  • Evolution of India-US relations in recent times.
  • Role China played in building India-US ties (Critically analyse)
  • Three clear strategic choices with India: Hedging, Bandwagoning, Balancing.

Way ahead - Balancing: Its structure and form that India would prefer:

  • The shape of a Quad: With Australia, Japan and the US. Or
  • A full-fledged military alliance: Such as an Asian NATO. 

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Critically analyse the performance of Agriculture Produce Market Regulation (APMC) acts in India. Also suggest a way forward for improving the APMC system. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • Recently the Parliament passed the three farm reform Bills that have seen widespread protests particularly in Haryana and Punjab.Thus the question.

Introduction: Mention the significance of marketing facilities in improving farmers’ income.


  • Need and Mandate of APMC acts
  • Loopholes of APMC acts:
    • Inadequate marketing facilities
    • Marketing barriers
    • Burden on Centre

Way forward and conclusion:

  • Strengthen competition
  • Recommendation of the National Commission on Farmers (NCF)

The laissez-faire policy needs strong institutional arrangements to protect lakhs of unorganised small farmers, who have been remarkably productive and shored up the economy even during a pandemic.


Q.3) Examine the different aspects and uniqueness of Indus Valley Civilisation(IVC) along with suitable examples. 

Why this question?

The year 2020 marks 100 years of discovery of Indus Valley Civilisation, and the latest study has shown that dairy products were being produced by the Harappans as far back as 2500 BCE.


Mention in brief about recent discovery in IVC


  • Mention chronology and location of IVC
    • The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization, more precisely known as Harappan Civilization. 
    • It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, what today is Pakistan and Western India. 
    • The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. 
  • Salient features:
    • Highly developed city life: many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system. 
    • The Indus Civilization had a writing system, however it is not deciphered yet.
    • The social conditions of the citizens were comparable to those in Sumeria and superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians.
    • The most fascinating thing about the Indus Valley Civilisation is that it is faceless — there is no king, no bureaucratic organisations, but there are these very close regional interactions between settlements, a symbiotic relationship of give and take that helped the civilisation survive for so long 


Summarize above discussion.