Q.1) What are asteroids and how hazardous they are for the planet earth? What are the different ways to ward-off threats posed by asteroid impacts? (10 marks - 150 words)

Why this question? - According to the Center for Near Objects Studies at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, an asteroid (2018VP1) that is on a collision course with Earth could come very close to the planet.

Intro - A brief about asteroids.

Body - 

According to The Planetary Society, there are estimated to be around 1 billion asteroids having a diameter greater than 1 metre. 

Potentially Hazardous: Objects that can cause significant damage upon impact on earth are larger than 30 metres. 

  • According to NASA's Near-Earth Object Observations Programme, asteroids that are 140 metres or larger are of  the greatest concern. However, no such asteroid has a significant chance of hitting the Earth for the next 100 years.
    • The Chicxulub impactor, the celestial object that caused the sudden extinction of most dinosaur species 66 million years ago, had a diameter of over 10 kilometres.

Damage control: Deflecting an asteroid: 

  • Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA): Which includes NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Hera. 
    • The mission’s target is Didymos, a binary near-Earth asteroid, that could pose the most likely significant threat to Earth.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Devising State-specific industrialisation strategies in coordination with the Centre will improve manufacturing in India. Discuss. (15M, 250 words)

Why this question?

  • In addition to its initiatives aimed at attracting manufacturing companies looking to relocate their plants to India from China, the Centre has urged the States to evolve their industrial plans. Thus the question.

Introduction: India’s position in manufacturing at international level


  • Mention the significance  of the manufacturing sector in generating jobs and boosting growth.
  • Role of states
  • India, a federal government system
  • Leading states in manufacturing
  • Concerns with less manufacturing GSDP in some states
  • Constraints in promoting India’s manufacturing sector

Conclusion: Summarise and suggest a way forward

  • State-specific industrialisation strategies based on careful examination should be implemented in mission mode with the help of the central government.
  • Forming a Strategy Group consisting of representatives from the Central and State governments along with top industry executives will instil teamwork and leverage ideas through sharing the best practices of the Centre and States. 


Q.3) The altered CSR norms in the country make it critical to ensure funds for social impact are utilized in a manner that drives perceivable change and transparency in reporting measurable aspects of development. Opine (15M, 250 Words)

Why this question?

The government has expanded the scope of corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending for companies engaged in research and development (R&D) of new vaccines, drugs and medical devices. Thus the question.

Introduction: Define corporate social responsibility and mention CSR Rules, 2014


  • Recent changes in CSR rules
    • including “PM CARES Fund” as a Corporate Social responsibility
    • expanding the scope of corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending for companies engaged in research and development (R&D) of new vaccines, drugs and medical devices
  • Concerns: one-time cheque-signing is becoming an increasingly popular option for CSR spending among corporates. 
    • The law on the other hand distinctively spells out that development programs should be part of a corporate’s business model.
    • Covid lockdown impact: With net profits shrinking, the amount of CSR reserves will reduce proportionately.
  • Significance: Sustained development is the need of the hour alongside relief and rescue work to build more resilient communities capable of facing such eventualities in future. 

Conclusion: Summarize and suggest a way forward

  • Impact investing should be done which prioritizes funding to NGOs/ implementing agencies who can deliver and measure outcomes and impact the best.
  • Impact investing through Edtech and digital initiatives can prove a powerful tool.

COVID-19 has shown us the way developmental funds need to be prioritized on areas like healthcare, education, digital literacy, livelihoods and poverty alleviation. 


Q.4) Contempt jurisdiction of courts should be used sparingly. Elucidate (250 words)

Why this question?

A recent order of the Supreme Court found senior advocate Prashant Bhushan guilty of contempt for his two tweets.


Mention recent judgment of SC


  • Background of the recent case
  • Details of content of court
  • Earlier SC rulings related to content
  • Worldwide scenario
  • Guidelines set by Lord Denning M.R in 1968
  • Thin line separating criticism and contempt


Quote the judgment by  Lord Denning