Q.1)Boosting private sector participation in India’s space sector would help the country leapfrog to the next stages of space activities. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

The Union Cabinet recently approved far-reaching reforms in the Space sector aimed at boosting private sector participation in the entire range of space activities.


Mention India’s few achievements in the space sector 


  • In brief current status of private sector participation
  • Mention how this will benefit the space sector
    • Optimum utilization of space assets:
    • ISRO to focus on core R&D activities:
    • Catalytic role in the technological advancement and expansion of India’s industrial base
    • large-scale employment
    • Improved access to space assets, data and facilities etc
  • Mention recently announced reforms 
    • Creation of the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACe)
    • NSIL’s role etc: ‘supply-driven’ model to a ‘demand-driven’ one


Mention India becoming a Global technology powerhouse


Q.2)The coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated inequalities in education systems across the world. Discuss the above statement in the light of the Global Education Monitoring Report,2020.

Why this question?

The 2020 Global Education Monitoring Report released by UNESCO recently.


Mention the vulnerability of certain sections during disaster situations.


  • COVID-19 and widening of educational divide
  • Mention vulnerability of such sections using key findings Global Education Monitoring Report,2020
    • Inadequate support to learners at risk of exclusion such as poor, linguistic minorities and learners with disabilities
    • Measures taken by the countries which will further the educational gap due to the digital divide
      • Imperfect substitutes such as distance learning solutions,radio and television lessons,online learning platforms 
    • Unavailability of the resources outside the schooling system
      • Resources for blind and deaf students 
      • Children with learning disabilities
      • Not getting free meals or even free sanitary napkins
    • Other problems
      • Marking system might be affected by stereotypes of certain types of students
      • Probable higher dropout rates in the future mostly from the children belonging to the marginalised sections.


Mention the need of recruiting more teachers, increasing class time and introducing remedial classes while providing special attention towards vulnerable sections.


Q.3) Infrastructure is the backbone of Indian Economy. Discuss the measures taken by the government to boost infrastructure sector in the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister took several landmark decisions, which will go a long way providing a much needed boost to infrastructure across sectors, which are crucial in the time of pandemic.

Intro - Write a brief about the present state of Infrastructure sector in India.

Body - 

  1. First tell the importance of infrastructure sector for Indian Economy - and mention that is why it is known as the backbone.
  2. Then mention the challenges faced by the infrastructure.
  3. Highlight the steps with their benefits taken by the govt to boost the sector in the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. 

Way ahead - Tell what more needs to be done.

Conclusion -- Summarize your answer based on the above discussion.


Q.4) Enumerate important relief features on the ocean floor and highlight the importance of mapping the ocean floor. (10 marks - 150 words)

Why this question? - An international collaboration of researchers recently claimed that it had finished mapping nearly one-fifth of the world’s ocean floor.

Intro - Write a brief about the ocean floor.

Body - 

  1. List important relief features of the ocean floor with a diagram.
  2. Tell the importance of the ocean floor and how mapping will help in understanding the ocean floor further.

Conclusion - Mention about the Seabed Project and its target to complete ocean floor mapping by 2030.


Q.5) CERT-In has anticipated a probable cyber attack by Chinese Hackers amidst the border standoff. Comment. 15 marks (250 words).

Why this question:

 Cert-In has issued an advisory regarding a possible cyber attack in the country.


Tell about CERT-In


Why attack is anticipated:

  • Input from cybersecurity firm Cyfirma.
  • The border dispute is not De-escalating
  • China has a large number of hackers who have conducted such examples in the past - Australia’s Example
  • China can’t afford a physical war with India 
  • Cyber attacks are difficult to prove

Advisory by CERT-In which country should follow:

  • The attack will be in the form of a phishing attack offering free COVID 19 testing
  • Citizens are advised to install latest anti-virus updates, avoid opening spam documents and unsolicited emails.
  • They are expected to report any suspicious activity to CERT-In


Employment of Ethical Hackers and Robust Digital infrastructure development is needed for countering such attacks in the future.