Q.1) With an ever increasing population and rapid pace of urbanization, India is facing a huge challenge of waste management. In this context, highlight the different methods or technologies used for Municipal Solid Waste Management and India’s progress in MSW management. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The volume of waste is projected to rise from the present 62 million tonnes to about 150 million tonnes by 2030. 

Intro - Indiscriminate dumping of garbage at the current rate without appropriate scientific treatment, would impose a huge requirement of landfill area per year. This necessitates the importance of scientific solid waste management in today’s context.

Body - 

Different methods/technologies used for Waste Management:

  • Plasma arc gasification process
  • Biomass Waste Disposal
  • Polymer Waste Disposal
  • Sanitary Waste Disposal

Steps taken for Waste Management in India:

  • New Technology
  • The Solid Waste Management Rules (SWM) 2016

Way ahead - 

  • Zero-Waste and Zero-Landfill Ecology.
  • Source of Job Creation.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Critically analyze India’s experience of Seven and a half decades at the UN. Also suggest a way forward as India soon begins its two-year term as a non-permanent UNSC member. (250 words)


Why this question?

  • The 75th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations (UN) is an opportunity to look at the major trends, patterns and future challenges as far as India’s role in UN is concerned. 

Introduction: Mention few incidences highlighting India’s growing role in the UN like India’s winning elections at various UN’s forums.

Body: India’s experience of Seven and a half decades at the UN may be divided in three distinct phases. 

  • The first phase: until the end of the Cold War in 1989
  • India enhanced its diplomatic influence as a moderating force in easing armed conflicts in Asia and Africa by disentangling them from the superpower rivalry. 
  • Second phase (1990s): A demanding decade

    • the sudden end of the Cold War, 
    • unstable coalition governments 
    • the balance of payments crisis which constrained the country’s capability to be active in  the Security Council (UNSC) and the General Assembly.
    • Internationalisation of Kashmir issue
    • Against NPT and CTBT
  • Third phase (The 21st century): India shining at UN
    • Humanitarian and funding assistance
    • The successful electoral contests 

Challenges for India:

  • UN reforms
  • Volatile global situation

Way forward and conclusion: Summarize and suggest a way forward for taking a pragmatic position on UN reforms and carrying on the humanitarian agenda.


Q.3) Despite many initiatives India continues to perform poorly in the Global Hunger Index. Elucidate

Why this question?

Global Hunger Index 2020 was recently released.


Mention India’s rank in comparison with 2019 ranking


  • Mention few stats related to stunting, wasting and child mortality in India
  • Mention key reasons for India’s poor performance
    • Large existence of small and marginal holdings
    • Declining relative income
    • Unemployment: Mention MGNREGA
    • Inefficient PDS system etc
  • Mention few suggestion
    • Renewed focus on small and marginal holdings
    • Create provisions to supply cooked nutritious food to the vulnerable section of the society
    • Improve access to food grains under the PDS
    • Increase employment and wages


Summarise above points in brief