Q.1) Discuss the advantages which Indian forces have over chinese PLA, especially Indian Air Force.Also, discuss the challenges faced by them.


  • Introduce with role played by IAF in war and its significance


  • Then discuss the advantages which forces have on land and maritime borders.
  • Mention the challenges : such as outdated weapons etc
  • Also discuss the steps taken by the government in recent past to modernize.


  • Conclude with way ahead: such as make in India in Defence sector , capacity building etx


Q.2) The Anti-Defection Law has both grounds of disqualification and exceptions to prevent it. Comment. 10 marks (150 words)

Why this question:

The Anti Defection law which aimed to curb defection has again come to limelight owing to its misuse in Goa and Manipur legislative assemblies. 


Start with explain 10th schedule and Anti Defection Law


Ground for Disqualification: 

  • A legislator is deemed to have defected if he -
    • voluntarily gives up the membership of his party or 
    • disobeys the directives of the party leadership on a vote without obtaining prior permission of such party and such an act has not been condoned by the party within 15 days.
  • Independent Members: If he joins any political party after getting elected to the house.
  • Nominated Members: If he joins any political party after the expiry of six months from the date on which he takes his seat in the House.


  • The law allows a party to merge with or into another party provided that at least two-thirds of its legislators are in favor of the merger.
    • The provision of the Tenth Schedule pertaining to an exemption from disqualification in case of a split by one-third members of the legislature party has been deleted by the 91st Amendment Act of 2003.
  • If a member, after being elected as the presiding officer of the House, voluntarily gives up the membership of his party or rejoins it after he ceases to hold that office.


Can say reforms are desired in order to improve the efficacy of law and give reference to the Dinesh Goswami committee and Halim committee.


Q.3) Call of ‘America First’ given by the US president has the potential to hurt India America bilateral relations. Analyze the above statement in the light of recent decision by the US administration to suspend H1-B visas.

Why this question? - The US administration recently extended the 60-day ban on immigration and non-immigrant worker visas till the end of 2020. 

Intro - Tell what is America First policy with example. You can give an example of suspension of H1-B visas recently.

Body - Analyze how this policy will impact India. Your focus should be on impact due to H1-B visas mainly, as it is asked in the question. You can cover other impacts briefly.

Way ahead - Opportunity to become self - reliant - reduce dependence on the US.

Conclusion - Indian govt is required to use it’s diplomatic instruments to ensure that the America First policy does not hamper Indian interests in the immediate terms.


Q.4) What was the significance of World War II? How it permanently changed the power dynamics of the global order.

Why this question?

  • India’s Defence Minister is on a three-day trip to Russia to attend the 75th Victory Day. Victory Day marks the end of World War II and the victory of the Allied Forces in 1945. 

Introduction to the answer:

  • About the Second World War 
  • Fought between the Axis powers and the Allied powers.
  • The leading powers of the former were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Empire of Japan, while the United Kingdom and France with their colonial empires, China, the Soviet Union and the United States made up the Allied powers.


  • Result of World War II: The Allied nations won. Of those, the United States and the Soviet Union gained the most.
  • Significance:
    • It resulted in the extension of the Soviet Union’s power to nations of eastern Europe.
    • It enabled a communist movement to eventually achieve power in China. 
    • It marked the decisive shift of power in the world away from the states of western Europe and toward the United States and the Soviet Union.
    • WW2 led to the wave of "Decolonisation" that changed the face world from the late 1940s, leading (e.g.) to genuine independence for India, Pakistan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, most of Africa, and most of the rest of Asia.
    • Cold war between USSR and USA
    • It saw the creation of major global organizations such as the World Bank, the U.N., IMF, and NATO.

Conclusion: Ultimately it led to non aligned movement and nations started focusing on their economic stability and upliftment of their people.