Q.1) Bal Gangadhar Tilak played a vital and major role in transforming India’s freedom struggle into a mass movement. Discuss (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - On the occasion of the birth anniversaries of great freedom fighters - Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Chandra Shekhar Azad, the Vice President of India paid rich tributes and asked people to strive to realize their dreams for this great country.

Intro - A brief about Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

Body - Highlight his contribution in India’s freedom struggles - As a radical nationalist, as an educationist, as a social reformer etc. In each mention how he worked towards transforming India’s struggle into a mass movement. For ex, his weeklies Kesari, Maharatta lead to nationalist awakening among masses.

Conclusion - He was conferred upon the title, “Lokmanya” (beloved leader) by his followers, is the recognition of his contributions.


Q.2)National security law belongs to the sovereignty of a country and the authority of the Central government. Critically analyze the above statement in the light of recently passed national security law in Hong Kong. Also, elaborate on the implications of the same on India.

Why this question?

The promulgation and implementation of the Law on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) marks a major turning point from unrest to peace and order.


Mention recent protests in Hong Kong.


  • The purpose of new security law
    • Safeguarding national security
    • Preventing, suppressing and imposing punishment for the offenses of secession and Collusion with a foreign country
    • Maintaining prosperity and stability of Hong Kong
  • Significant effects of the law
    • Sustained implementation of One Country, Two Systems: 
    • Protecting the lawful rights and freedoms of Hong Kong residents
    • Aimed at long term development:
  • Also mention how it can threaten the basic rights of Hong Kong’s population.
  • What does this mean to India?
    • Close economic and trade relations with Hong Kong.
    • Need of stability in the region


Conclude by balancing both arguments above.


Q.3) The current geopolitical scenario calls for deepening India- South Korea ties. Comment. 10 marks (150 words)

Why this question:

The two nations have great opportunities to collaborate with each other in the current scenario.


Both democracies have maintained good relations with each other but time has come to take them to the next level.


Current Scenario calling for Cooperation:

  • South Korea is way ahead in terms of technological advancement as it managed to attain a tiger economy status in the 1970s, this transfer of technology can be highly beneficial to India.
  • The U.S has put forth a proposal to include both India and South Korea in the G7 grouping so as to make the group more representative.
  • The rising chinese assertiveness is a cause of concern for both South Korea and India in the Indo Pacific region.
  • The trade between two countries is around $22 billion dollars which can easily be increased to $50 considering the rising demand of Boycott chinese goods in India.
  • India can also help S. Korea in Peace Negotiations with N. Korea as India has an image of a peaceful and neutral country in the world forum.
  • India is a very young country which can support the ageing population of South Korea.
  • Their defence partnership appears to have receded from great all-round promise to the mere sale and purchase of weapon systems.
  • Both India and S. Korea can learn a lot from each other’s culture as currently this is a domain where cooperation is not very strong.
    • S. Korea still believes India to be a poor 3rd world country
    • Indians on the other hand know more about Chinese and Japanese Cultures but little about the S. Korean cultures.
    • This hinder the creation of empathy and trust among the citizens of two countries and sometimes the people even have to face racial discrimination


  • India and South Korea have successfully concluded a military logistics agreement in 2019 and Culture Centres are already established in each other’s country improving people to people ties.
  • As the balance of power in the region continues to shift fast, India and South Korea may need each other like never before, to protect their ways of life. 
  • A regional hegemon is already pushing hard into the ambit of the Indian Ocean. The sooner these bonds are renewed the better it would be for all Asian democracies.