Q.1) Though CBI is a professional and premier investigating agency of India, it has been alleged for acting under political pressure. In this context, critically analyze the functioning of the agency. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The Maharashtra government has withdrawn general consent given to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) to probe cases in the state. 

Intro - A brief about CBI.

Body - 

  • Objectives and functions
  • Why allegations of acting under political pressure

Way ahead - Reforms needed

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Highlight the contribution made by Mughals in promoting Indian art of miniature paintings. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The Union Ministry of Culture has recently launched the Life in Miniature project.

Introduction - A brief about the history of miniature paintings in India.

Body - Contribution Mughal School

  • The amalgamation of Indian paintings and Persian miniature paintings gave rise to the Mughal School of miniature painting. 
  • The Mughal style of painting flourished from 16th to 18th centuries, especially under the reign of Akbar. 
  • Scenes from the royal court, hunting expeditions, wildlife and battles were often displayed through these paintings. 
  • While Humayun and Jahangir encouraged paintings that portrayed events from their respective life, in Shah Jahan’s reign painters began giving importance to portraiture.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.3) Enhancing regional representation in the UN Security Council is the way forward for the United Nations reforms. Analyze. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • October 24 marks the diamond jubilee of the United Nations.Thus the question.

Introduction: Give a brief intro about the agenda of UN reforms.


Need for UN reforms

  • Inequality: The UNSC does not include a permanent member from the African, Australian and South American continents, the G-4 group of Brazil, India, Germany and Japan.
  • Exclusiveness: The differences between permanent and non-permanent seats produce a highly unequal and inefficient Security Council. 
  • The performance of the Security Council in maintaining international peace and security has been poor. It failed in its actions in Somalia, Bosnia and Rwanda.
  • Geopolitical tensions
  • Pandemic

Way forward and conclusion: 

  • Text-based negotiations should be initiated immediately. It is the process used to translate words into action in the United Nations.
  • Reforming UNSC


Q.4) At the 2+2 Ministerial forum meet, India must ensure that its gamble with Trump’s regime so close to the U.S. election pays off. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

U.S. Secretary of State and U.S. Defence Secretary are visiting India for the Third India-U.S. 2+2 Ministerial Dialogue.


Mention in brief 2+2 meet


  • Background of Paris climate deal just before US elections last time
  • Mention ongoing issues between India and US
    • Quad grouping and Indo-Pacific
    • BECA 
    • CAATSA etc
  • Mention the issues that need to be focussed eg trade issues, restoring India’s Generalised System of Preferences status, cooperation on 5G technology sharing etc
  • Mention few suggestions for India


Mention that our leaders must drive a harder bargain to consolidate the pay-offs from the visit.