Q.1) Discuss the significance of having its independent regional navigation satellite system (IRNSS) for India. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? -  Recently, by becoming the fourth country in the world to have its independent regional navigation satellite system (IRNSS), India can now replace GPS in the Indian Ocean waters upto 1500 km from the Indian boundary. 

Intro - A brief about IRNSS


  • Salient features/Applications of IRNSS
  • Significance of having its own navigation system for India

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Formulating effective laws to counter bio-terrorism is one of the important lessons to be learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic. Comment. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • The Department of Health and Family Welfare submitted a seven-point action plan for ensuring security against biological weapons. Thus the question.

Introduction: Give a brief info about bioterrorism and its examples.


Need for bioterrorism laws:

  • Covid-19 mismanagement

  • Increased security threat
  • Loopholes in countering public health emergencies

Way forward: 

  • Action plan
  • More research

Conclusion: Although the international scientific community has rejected that COVID-19 virus was developed as a bio-weapon but we need to be more prepared for potential health emergencies.


Q.3) India needs to take steps to realise potential in the central Indian Ocean .Discuss the above statement in the light of the recently launched Deep Ocean Mission. (250 words)

Why this question?

India to launch a deep-sea mission in 3-4 months


Mention details about economic potential of India’s coastline


  • Background of potential in central Indian ocean
    • Poly-Metallic Sulphides (PMS) etc
  • Deep ocean mission
    • Basic details
    • Organisations involved
    • Aspects covered
  • Few suggestions for utilising these resources efficiently
  • Mention that the ISA has approved 10,000 sq. km for India with a 15-year PMS exploration plan


Summarize the above discussion


Q.4) Critically examine the reasons behind the Supreme Court of India scrapping the Section 66A of the Information Technology (IT) Act as unconstitutional? (150 words)

Why this question?

  • The Governor of Keralas signed the ordinance seeking an amendment to the Kerala Police Act to control online bullying and virtual abuse of women and children.

Introduction: Mention a brief info about Section 66 A of the IT Act.


  • Constitutional provisions: Article 19
  • About the judgment
  • Reasons: Chilling effect on fundamental rights, vagueness, arbitrariness

Conclusion: Summarize the above point