Q.1) This year’s International Day of Biological Diversity(IDB) theme, “OUR SOLUTIONS ARE IN NATURE” highlights that nature is very important especially in the present context of COVID 19. In this context mention the steps taken by the International community and India to protect planet earth from various catastrophes. (15 marks - 250 words)
Why this question? - 22 may every year is celebrated as the International Day of Biological Diversity(IDB) and this year’s IDB is special as the world is fighting the COVIS-19 outbreak.
Intro - One can start with IDB and the importance of the day.
Body - Steps taken by international community - Convention of Biodiversity and Cartagena, Nagoya protocols, Aichi targets etc.
Steps taken by India - Ratifying CBD and BD Act, 2002 etc.
Why is it more important now? - This year’s theme “OUR SOLUTIONS ARE IN NATURE” highlights that nature is very important especially in the present context of COVID 19 as it shields us from various catastrophes including zoonotic diseases.
Way ahead - Countries like the US need to be pushed to ratify CBD.
Conclude - As a mega biodiverse country, it is the best time for India to share experiences and best practices with the international community required to improve biodiversity scenario.
Q.2) As tensions remain high between Indian and Chinese soldiers, discuss the major areas of dispute between India and China along with the measures taken by both sides to resolve the dispute.
Why this question: As tensions remain high between Indian and Chinese soldiers, the number of recorded Chinese transgressions across the disputed India-China border surged by 75 per cent in Ladakh in 2019, and the Chinese forays into Indian territory in the first four months of the current year have also witnessed an increase compared to the same period last year.
Intro: discuss recent developments in Indo China relations.
Various sectors on the India-China border: India-China border is divided into three sectors
- The LAC in the western sector falls in the union territory of Ladakh and is 1597 km long,
- The middle sector of 545 km length falls in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and 1346 km long eastern sector falls in the states of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
- The middle sector is the least disputed sector, while the western sector witnesses the highest transgressions between the two sides.
Also mention about doklam stand off and other issues
If possible draw a map to represent major disputed areas.
Discuss the steps taken to resolve the dispute: Wuhan summit and Mamallapuram summit.
Suggest way ahead based on the discussion above
India and China are both nuclear-armed countries with strong militaries.both should exercise restraint and make efforts to resolve the issues bilaterally.
Q.3) A blanket ban on cryptocurrencies could push the entire system underground and will defeat the purpose. So India should also begin authorised trials on use of digital currencies on the lines of Chinese experiments. Discuss.
Why this question?
- The People’s Bank of China (PBoC), the Chinese central bank said that it has explored approaches to designing an inclusive, prudent and flexible trial-and-error mechanism. This marks the initiation of China’s central bank digital currency (CBDC).
Introduction to the answer:
- Briefly describe Cryptocurrencies and their prevalence across the world and India. Also describe Chinese Digital Currency Electronic Payment (DCEP)
- Rationale given by RBI for ban on virtual currency exchanges in circular 2018
- These currencies had no underlying fiat: Episodes of excessive volatility in their value, and their anonymous nature which goes against global money-laundering rules.
- SC judgement in Internet Mobile Association of India v. Reserve Bank of India case
- In the Internet Mobile Association of India v. Reserve Bank of India, the Supreme Court held that the ban by RBI did not pass the “proportionality” test.
- The apex court held that the test of proportionality of any action by the government must pass the test of Article 19(1)(g), which states that all citizens of the country will have the right to practise any profession, or carry on any occupation or trade and business.
- The petitioners, who included virtual currency exchanges operational in the country, had told the Supreme Court that the RBI action was outside its purview as the non-fiat currency was not a currency as such.
- Pros and Cons of cryptocurrencies
Conclusion: Provide a way forward
- It is now imperative on authorities to find the right “regulatory balance” on cryptocurrencies. The 2019 Bill’s proposal for the creation of a “digital rupee” as official currency should be considered.
- The recent survey by Basel-based Bank for International Settlement (BIS) revealed that while in general, central banks have been proceeding cautiously towards introducing central banks digital currencies, some have been planning to issue a fiat digital currency in the short to medium term.
Q.4) India Nepal Relations have reached a new low since the release of a new political map by Nepal showing some Indian territories as part of Nepal. Comment. 10 marks ( 150 words)
Why this question:
Nepal has adopted a new political map that claims not only Lipulekh but other areas (Kalapani and Limpiyadhura) that are in Indian territory but have been claimed by Nepal invoking the 1816 Sugauli treaty
New Political map released by Nepal showing Indian Territories as part of Nepal
- Explain the reason behind the move in brief - Motorable Road along Lipulekh pass built by India and Nepal’s contention that Lipulekh and Kalapani region are disputed territories
- A new Low - Madhesi Blockade Controversy, Protest in Nepal against the Indian Government, Nepal has also threatened to send more forces on the India-Nepal border , Exchange of Jibes like Indian Virus more Dangerous than Corona , Nepal is acting on Behest of External force(CHINA) etc..
- Countries share Roti-Beti relations and have been very good friends throughout the past.
- Need is to solve differences using diplomacy ( Just as we did with Bangladesh using LBA, 1974)