Q.1) Mahatma Gandhi’s support to the Khilafat Movement had diluted his secular credentials. Critically examine. (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - The film titled ‘Variyamkunnan’,on the name of a Khilafat leader is expected to hit theatres in 2021, the 100th year anniversary of the Malabar uprising. 

Intro - Tell about Khilafat movement and under what circumstances Gandhiji decided to support the movement.

Body - Highlight the criticism of Gandhiji for supporting the movement. Then give arguments in favour of Gandhiji supporting the movement.

Conclusion - The life of Gandhiji shows that he gives humanity priority above all.


Q.2) Discuss the challenges involved in warfare in a high-altitude place like Galwan Valley and also highlight the logistical challenges faced in this kind of warfare.

Why in news:

  •  The violent standoff between Indian and Chinese troops in the Galwan Valley of Ladakh region has thrown the spotlight on high-altitude warfare and the challenges that troops face, particularly when advantageous positions on the heights are occupied by the other side.


  • Introduce with the significance of preparedness for altitude warfare.


What are the logistical challenges in this kind of warfare?

  • One major challenge is that weapons jam, particularly in high-altitude areas. 
  • When a soldier is at a height of 17,000 ft or above, it is very cold, and he needs to grease the weapons and clean the barrels at least once a week to ensure they function efficiently.
  • Vehicles do not start when fuel jams.

What are the challenges involved in warfare in a high-altitude place like Galwan Valley?

  • In a place like Galwan Valley, which is absolutely barren, there is not much concealment. 
  • The soldier on high ground is absolutely stationary, which makes those on lower terrain easy targets; the enemy can pick them up one by one. 
  • Normally in mountain warfare, troops on lower ground use a combat ratio of 1:6, but in circumstances as in Galwan, it may go up to 1:10.


Conclude with a way ahead to overcome these challenges.


Q.3) An IPO would bring in greater transparency in the functioning of Life Insurance Corporation (LIC). Comment(150 words)

Why this question?

The central government has started the process to launch the initial public offer (IPO) of Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) within this year


Mention government’s disinvestment roadmap


  • Background of LIC
  • Size and position of LIC in brief
  • Benefits
    • Transparency into affairs of LIC due to the requirement of informing market-related developments on time to the stock exchanges. 
    • Benefits for Investors
    • Greater scrutiny


Achieving the outcome intended with no repercussions.


Q.4) PM Care fund was the novel idea to deal with the COVID crisis but has become a tool to augment secrecy. Comment 10 marks. (150 words)

Why this question:

Right to Information (RTI) applications seeking information about the PM CARES Fund have been stonewalled. 


Tell COVID 19 was the rationale behind its introduction


Tell about PM Care Fund provisions:

  • Dedicated Fund to deal with the epidemic
  • PM heads the board of Trustees
  • Benefits to individuals, industry and Foreigners if they contribute towards the fund

A tool to augment secrecy:

  • PMO declared it to be outside the purview of RTI
  • Plus there is no elaborate disclosure on the official website of the Fund regarding the exact amount collected, names of donors, expenditure incurred, or details of beneficiaries

Way Ahead:

  • The court must take a call regarding the status of fund i.e a public authority or not a public authority
  • Section 4 of the RTI Act must be implemented in both letter and spirit.


Q.5) Explain the significance of Puri Jagannath Rath Yatra in safeguarding the Indian cultural Heritage. (10M, 150 Words)

Why this question?

The Supreme Court lifted its June 18 ban on the conduct of Puri Jagannath Rath Yatra after ensuring a complete lack of public attendance for the festival to avoid spread of infection amid a pandemic.

Introduction to the answer

About Puri Jagannath Rath Yatra

  • The holy festival is held in Odisha's Puri and marks the journey of Lord Jagannath, Lord Balbhadra and Goddess Subadhra from their actual abode (the Puri Jagannath Temple) to the Gundicha temple.
  • The Rath Yatra happens to be a 15-day long festival.
  • The Rath Yatra involves three chariots - Lord Jagannath's Nandighosh, Lord Balabhadra's Taladwaja and Devi Subhadra's Darpadalan.


Significance and rituals:

  • Lord Jagannath (the Lord of the Universe derived from the Sanskrit words - Jagat meaning Universe and Nath meaning Lord) leaves his abode along with siblings Balbhadra and Subadhra for Gundicha Mata's Temple, a monument built in the memory of Queen Gundicha, wife of King Indradyumna who built the world famous Puri temple.
  • The Puri temple is one of the Char Dham.
  • This heritage provides communities with a sense of identity and is continuously recreated in response to their environment.
  • The importance of intangible cultural heritage is not the cultural manifestation itself but rather the wealth of knowledge and skills that is transmitted. The social and economic value of this transmission of knowledge is relevant for minority groups and for mainstream social groups within a State, and is as important for developing States as for developed ones.

Conclusion: The power of culture as a leverage for boosting distinct areas of economic, social, political and artistic life, interconnected by the practice of a living heritage, is demonstrated in Puri Jagannath Rath Yatra.