Q.1) The Defence Ministry released its latest Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020 (DAP 2020) which diluted the “offset” policy in defence procurement. Many contend that the move is a setback for augmenting domestic capabilities. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • The govt. changed a 15-year old policy by removing the clause for offsets if the equipment is being bought either through deals or agreements between two countries, or through an ab initio single-vendor deal.

Introduction: An offset provision in a contract makes it obligatory on the supplier to either “reverse purchase, execute export orders or invest in local industry or in research and development” in the buyer’s domestic industry.


  • Changes in offset policy
  • Benefits of offsets
  • Concerns with offset clause removal

    • Setback for indegenous defence production

    • Short lived offset policy in aerospace

Conclusion: The offset policy can, however, succeed, if it is designed and executed correctly, like in the aerospace industry. India needs to re-conceive or re-imagine the offset clause in defence contracts with stricter enforcement of the deals, in order to aim for ‘Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan’, or a self-reliant India.


Q.2) Discuss the significance of defence deals in India-US bilateral relation. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • India and the US are preparing for the third 2+2 ministerial meeting. Thus the question.

Introduction: The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA), LEMOA and COMCASA have been dubbed the troika of foundational pacts for deeper military cooperation between India and USA.


  • A brief about India-US bilateral relations
  • Defence deals signed between India and US
  • Significance: Defence as a driver, strategic convergence between India and the US on the rise of an aggressive and expansionist China in the Indo-Pacific, Quad, economic benefits

Conclusion: Summarize the above points and suggest a way forward.


Q.3) India is a fertile ground to be a technology-led innovation garage. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

The questions on innovation in different fields have been asked frequently.


Mention few stats such as ‘India is the fastest growing country in terms of Internet usage’


  • Elaborate India’s innovation potential
    • Mention Vaishvik Bharatiya Vaigyanik (VAIBHAV) summit and (RAISE) 2020 summit
    • JAM figures
    • A recent report by Accenture, potential to add over $957 billion to India’s GDP by 2035 with artificial intelligence (AI).
  • Initiatives taken by government incentivising research and development 
  • Hurdles in those initiatives and few suggestions


Mention need of spending more on R&D activities.