Q.1) For India’s economic recovery from the pandemic, raising financial resources for government’s spending is the key. Comment (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - As the Indian government is in the process of preparing Budget 2021-22, following ways can be suggested to raise resources to finance spending for India’s economic recovery from the pandemic. 

Intro - Impact of Covid-19 on Indian economy.


  • Current status of Indian economy - growth, govt spendings.
  • Need for fast economic recovery

Way ahead - Ways to raise financial resources.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Discuss the APMCAct and examine the various issues related to it. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • The Left- affiliated All-India Kisan Mazdoor Sabha (AIKMS) said the farmers had demanded improvement in the functioning of the mandis under the Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act and not “mukti” (freedom) from them. 

Introduction: Mention in brief, the importance of the agri markets in India.


  • About APMC Act
  • Significance
  • Shortcomings of the APMC Act
  • Way forward: Strengthening the linkage of national and international markets

Conclusion: Summarize the above points.


Q.3) What are PVTGs. Discuss the various concerns associated with them. Also suggest steps to protect PVTGs. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • Any exploitation of the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans for commercial and strategic gain would spell the death knell for its occupants, the Sentinelese, the Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) has said.

Introduction: Mention the importance of preserving tribal culture.


  • Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)
  • Composition of PVTGs
  • Procedure for Identification
  • Criteria for identification
  • Concerns: 
    • Low level of literacy,
    • Economic backwardness such as such as dependency on hunting, gathering for food
    • A declining or stagnant population.

Conclusion: Summarize with a way forward.


Q.4) Comment on the political crises in Nepal. What should be India’s approach towards it (200 words)

Q.5) In the light of ongoing farmers’ protests, Agricultural Produce & Marketing Committees are in news. What are their weaknesses and how can we improve and revitalise the functioning of APMCs (200 words)

Q.6) National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 completed its first 10 years. Comment upon the contribution of NGT over all these years through its landmark orders. Do you think that “Tribunal-based approach” towards Environmental Preservation has helped