Q.1) With ‘technology first’ as their governance model, India has unlimited possibilities in the field of space research, critical minerals, 5G, Artificial Intelligence, quantum computing and much more. Comment (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Addressing the Bengaluru Tech Summit 2020, the Prime Minister of India held that the Digital India mission has now become a way of life, especially for the poor and marginalised and those in the government. 

Intro - Start with the government of India’s Digital India Mission.

Body - 

  • Tech first as governance model - Contribution of tech in different sectors
    • space research, 
    • critical minerals, 
    • 5G, 
    • Artificial Intelligence, 
    • quantum computing 
  • Challenges

Way ahead/ Conclusion - How to overcome the challenges.


Q.2) Discuss the status, achievements and challenges that remain as the Swachh Bharat Mission completes five years? (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - As the United Nations marks November 19 as World Toilet Day every year to raise awareness about access to hygienic toilets, a look at the state of sanitation in India.

Intro - A brief about SBM.


  • Salient features of SBM
  • Achievements
  • Challenges

Way ahead - India needs to have a sanitation policy that focuses on reducing open defecation and sustaining it.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.3)  The possibility of a two-front war with Pakistan and China has been debated in the past. The ongoing standoff with China in eastern Ladakh has brought India closer to that reality. Discuss. (150 words)

Why this question?

Earlier, India felt that it could avoid any military action from China through political and diplomatic action. The threat from China has become more real than it was in the past after the Ladakh clashes. Thus the question.

Introduction: Mention in brief about the scenario of two-front war.



  • Volatile LoC and LAC

  • China's aggressive regime 

  • The size of India's defence budget is decreasing, which is also a challenge.

Significance of increased military cooperation, exercises, logistic agreements like QUAD, BECA

Conclusion and way forward

  • Civil-military dialogue: At the strategic level, there needs to be greater dialogue between the civil and military leaderships to see how this can be bridged.


Q.4) Explain the menace of fake news in social media in India. Also, discuss the need to have a mechanism to address the misinformation being caused due to fake news in the country.

Why this question?

The apex court is hearing petitions against the communal color given by some channels recently.


Mention some recent incidents in this matter and the damage done


  • Mention various platforms and their scale of damage
  • The need for stopping the fake news
  • Existing laws and structure to tackle the problem
  • Problems in the current structure
  • Few suggestions


Summarize the above discussion