Q.1) A greater capability by India to patrol up to the Line of Actual Control (LAC) coupled with an increasingly assertive Chinese posture is a potential disaster. Explain. (10M, 150 Words)

Why this question?

  • People’s Liberation Army was “tightening control” in one of the flashpoints in Galwan Valley in the western sector, after it accused India of “unilaterally” changing the status quo by “illegal construction”. 


  • India-China border issue
  • Mention recent India-China skirmishes.


  • India’s border road development.
  • Significance:The Standing Committee on Defence, in its 2017-2018 report, noted that “the country, being surrounded by some difficult neighbours, with a view to keeping pace, construction of roads and development of adequate infrastructure along the borders is a vital necessity”.
  • This helps in effective border management, security and development of infrastructure in inaccessible areas adjoining the China Border and lack of it creates difficulties as seen during the 2017 Doklam Standoff.

Point of contention

  • India-China Border talks
  • China’s point:Clarifying perceptions of the LAC could help, but China has stalled the process as they are afraid the LAC will become the boundary.
  • India’s point: India doesn't want to negotiate one common line, but negotiate a line that Chinese don’t cross, and another line that India  doesn't cross.


  • Provide a way forward for peaceful negotiations.
  • China is way ahead of India in military capabilities so all out ‘hard halancing’ on the border will not be correct. Use of soft power is recommended.


Q.2) Star Rating of Garbage Cities Program can be a game changer in attaining urban development. Comment. 10 marks (150 words)

Why This question:

Results of Star rating of garbage free cities were announced by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.


Define urban development and tell sanitation is a critical component of it.


Tell Key features of Star Rating Program - 

  • The star rating conditions have been designed in a way as to enable cities to gradually evolve into a model (7-star) city, with progressive improvements in their overall cleanliness. 
  • The star rating conditions are based on 25 key parameters across the solid waste management spectrum.
  • The Star Rating is supported by a robust verification mechanism to ensure transparency and standardisation. 
  • Cities are required to carry out self-assessment and self-verification for achieving a certain star rating.
  • This self-declaration will be further verified through an independent third-party agency appointed by MoHUA for 1-star, 3-star, 5-star and 7-star garbage free ratings. 
  • To ensure that the star rating is aligned with our vision of making SBM a Jan Andolan, citizen groups have to be involved through the system of self-declaration. 


  • Helps in achieving other programs like swachh bharat
  • Linkage of Good Sanitation with Health ( Give reference of Covid 19 also)
  • Garbage free cities also in tune with environment
  • Program will develop a spirit of competitive federalism


Using Gandhiji’s Philosophy or Make a link with sustainable development goals.