Q.1) The RIC is a significant multilateral grouping, because it brings together the three largest Eurasian countries which are also incidentally geographically contiguous. Discuss. (15M, 250 Marks)

Why this question?

  • Russia is going to host a trilateral RIC video conference, which includes External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar, and Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi.

Introduction to the answer: 

About Russia-India-China (RIC)

  • It was conceived by the then Russian foreign minister Yevgeny Primakov in 1998, much before BRICS.The three countries have agreed to hold regular summits from now on at all levels to jointly promote peace and stability. 

Objectives: It works on the need to promote multilateralism, reform institutions of global governance like the UN and the WTO and highlight the need to work together to steer global economic governance.


Significance: The RIC brings together the three largest Eurasian countries which are also incidentally geographically contiguous.

  • Together, the RIC countries occupy over 19 percent of the global landmass and contribute to over 33 percent of global GDP. 
  • All three are nuclear powers and two, Russia and China, are permanent members of the UN Security Council, while India aspires to be one. 
  • Russia becomes the bridge between India and China, since it enjoys strong relations with both. 
  • Moreover, the RIC forms the core of both the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and the BRICS.

Conclusion: India would do well to give RIC the due importance. India is actually both a maritime and continental power. India cannot cede geostrategic space in the Eurasian supercontinent to China if it wants to be a great power and it understands that Russia alone will not be able to prevent the emergence of China as a hegemon in Eurasia. 


Q.2) Discuss the issue of decoupling of Indian Economy from chinese Economy.also suggest some measures to reduce the trade deficit with China.

Why in news: The outrage over the killing of Indian soldiers has led to calls for banning trade with China. However, India would stand to lose more than China if trade were to be banned.

Intro: Start with decoupling definitions or introduce the India China trade  deficit.


  • Discuss the major cause of trade deficit then
  • Discuss the consequences of decoupling-both positive and negative.


  • Suggest measures to reduce trade deficit in a sustainable manner


Q.3) The Anti Defection Law was formulated with a novel spirit but has become a tool for gaining power. Comment 10 marks (150 words)

Why this question:

The Anti Defection law which aimed to curb defection has again come to limelight owing to its misuse in Goa and Manipur legislative assemblies. 


Tell about the 10th Schedule and Speaker’s Power under Article 102 and 191 of Constitution.

Rationale behind Law:

  • Smooth and Effective decision making
  • Curbing opportunism among members
  • Augments stability of government


  • No timelines plus Final authority with speaker
  • Give examples of Goa, Karnataka, Mainpur etc.. for substantiation


The recent Manipur Judgment which fixes a 3 month deadline on speaker and calls for establishment of a Permanent Tribunal under a SC judge to decide the disqualification matters.