Q.1) What is the reason behind Arabian Sea witnessing far less cyclones than Bay of Bengal. Comment. 10 marks ( 150 words)
Why this question:
Cyclone Nisarga is likely to hit on the west coast
Begin with a standard definition of cyclone
Reason for more Cyclones in Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea
Bay of Bengal has higher surface temperature in comparison and tropical cyclones need a higher temperature for cyclone genesis.
- In addition, the Bay receives higher rainfall and constant inflow of fresh water from the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
- This means that the Bay’s surface water keeps getting refreshed, making it impossible for the warm water to mix with the cooler water below, making it ideal for a depression.
- Cyclones of low intensity also come from the foreign sources.
- Neighboring Pacific Ocean seas are more prone to cyclones.
- Typhoons originating near the Philippines, China, Thailand and Malaysia enter the Andaman Sea of Bay of Bengal after they weaken in their native regions.
- Coastal region of east is of low topography in comparison to Western areas with Ghats of high elevation.
- Most of the cyclones in the Arabian Sea are local. They collapse a little after making landfall as there is no back-up supply.
- Cyclones usually weaken if they encounter a large landmass.
- However, due to the lack of any such presence between the Pacific and the Bay, cyclonic winds easily move into the Bay of Bengal.
- Once here, the winds encounter the Western Ghats and the Himalayas, either becoming weak or getting blocked in the Bay, but never reaching the Arabian Sea.
Refer to a current event (Cyclone Amphan in Bay Of Bengal) and need to implement the SENDAI Framework in both letter and Spirit.
Q.2) The COVID-19 pandemic has been a great leveller, but its effects stand to be devastating particularly in Africa, where economic and public health conditions are extremely vulnerable. In this context, discuss the development approaches of India and China in African continent. (15 marks -250words)
Why this question? - As Asia’s two largest economies and long-standing partners of Africa, India and China have increased their outreach to Africa through medical assistance amid COVID-19 pandemic.
Intro - One can start with the challenges faced by African countries and highlight how these have increased the vulnerabilities of the continent amid Covid.
Body - Discuss briefly about India and China’s outreach in Africa. Then, discuss their development approaches. Tell, how India’s approach is better than China’s.
Way forward - India needs to expedite its cooperation and diplomatic relations with Africa by building goodwill through capacity building and quick delivery of projects undertaken.
Q.3) Recently, Moody has downgraded the Government of India’s foreign-currency and local-currency long-term issuer ratings to “Baa3” from “Baa2”.In the light off this rating , highlight the major causes of low rating of Indian economy and also discuss the implication of negative rating in brief.
Why this question:The latest downgrade reduces India to the lowest investment grade of ratings and brings Moody’s — which is historically the most optimistic about India — ratings for the country in line with the other two main rating agencies in the world — Standard & Poor’s (S&P) and Fitch (see attached chart on the brief history of India’s sovereign rating).
Start with the recent rating of moody’s.
Explain the reasons:
- Weak implementation of economic reforms since 2017: implementation of reforms has been relatively weak and has not resulted in material credit improvements, indicating limited policy effectiveness.
- Relatively low economic growth over a sustained period.
What does “negative” outlook mean?
- The negative outlook reflects dominant, mutually-reinforcing, downside risks from deeper stresses in the economy and financial system that could lead to a more severe and prolonged erosion in fiscal strength.
- It highlights persistent structural challenges to fast economic growth such as weak infrastructure, rigidities in labor, land and product markets, and rising financial sector risks.
Implications of this downgrade
- A rating downgrade means that bonds issued by the Indian governments are now “riskier” than before, because weaker economic growth and worsening fiscal health undermine a government’s ability to pay back.
- Lower risk is better because it allows governments and companies of that country to raise debts at a lower rate of interest.
- In the long term it reduces investment in the economy.
Based on these discussion above suggest way ahead such as labor reforms, fiscal consolidation etc
Q.4 Organic Farming can be one of the vital tools to double the farmer’s income in India and it has potential to solve other problems faced by Indian agriculture sector. Comment
Why this question:Recently, International experts in a convention organized on 29 May by NITI Aayog endorsed efforts to significantly boost agroecological and natural farming approaches in India.
- Define organic farming and mention its components
- Discuss how organic farming can contribute to farmers income.such as low input cost, less irrigation etc
- The highlight the problems faced by indian agriculture sector.Such as low yield, increased usage of fertilizers etc.discuss how organic farming can resolve these problems.
Conclude by writing significance of organic farming and steps that are taken like Zero budget natural farming, Paramparagat Krishi vikas yojana etc
Q.5) With the decline of purity in politics and the onset of corruption and inefficiency in public services, the judiciary has been emboldened into assuming more and more power over the legislature and executive. It may threaten the delicate balance of power between the three organs of the state.
Why this question?
- The courts have stepped in the issues arising out of the Coronavirus crisi and lockdown.
- Judicial Activism: Origin and significance, Constitutional background
- Reason behind judicial activism
Examples of Judicial Activism:
- The case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala: While ruling that there is no implied limitation on the powers of Parliament to amend the Constitution, it held that no amendment can do violence to its basic structure (the "Basic Structure Doctrine").
- Further, it established the Supreme Court's right of review and, therefore, established its supremacy on constitutional matters..
Judicial overreach: There is a very thin line between judicial activism and judicial overreach, as when the activism crosses its limit and starts becoming judicial adventurism it takes the form of Judicial overreach.
- Examples of Judicial Overreach: National Anthem Case:The Supreme Court on December 2016, passed its judgment in the case of Shyam Narayan Chouksey v. Union of India, which makes it mandatory, that:
- All the cinema halls in India shall play the National Anthem before the feature film starts along with other directives
- Limitations of judiciary
- Maintaining the sanctity of balance of power.
- Trust between organs of govt.