Q.1) The proposal for the Rajya Sabha had no easy sailing in the Constituent Assembly. In this context, examine the need and relevance of the Upper House in the Indian polity. (15marks - 250words)

Why this question? - The Rajya Sabha sat for just 33 days in 2020, its lowest-ever tally of sittings in a year.

Intro - Highlight constitutional provision that provides for the constitution of RS.

Body - Discuss how RS emerged in brief, and arguments of opponents and proponents in constituent assembly for a bicameral parliament. Then, highlight the issues faced by RS. After that mention the need and relevance of Upper house in Indian Polity.

Way ahead - Reforms to make RS more efficient, so that it can fulfil the objectives for which it was created.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Lightning accounts for 33 percent of total fatalities from all natural disasters during 2019-20. Discuss the reasons and suggest measures to reduce fatalities. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - According to a latest report, lightning strikes have caused 1,771 deaths between April 1, 2019 and March 31, 2020. 

Intro - Data on fatalities due to lightning


  • Explain the phenomenon of lightning
  • Reasons of large fatalities

Way ahead - 

  • A more scientific and focused community centric approach: The NDMA has issued comprehensive guidelines for preparations of Lightning action plans to states. 
  • A National Lightning Resilience Programme: Will help in convergence of various departments.
  • Mapping of lightning: Identifying the precise risk in terms of lightning frequency, current intensity, energy content, high temperature and other adverse impacts. 
    • This would yield a Lightning Risk Atlas map for India which will form the basis for a lightning risk management programme. 

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.3) India is the permanent chair of the recently formed Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure. Ignoring low probability risks could be catastrophic for the economy as well as society. Discuss. ( words)

Why this question?

While winter may be longer and harsher in some regions due to La Niña, forecasters suggest that 2021 would still be among the Earth’s hottest years recorded. Rising temperatures have led to a sharp increase in climate extreme events in recent years.

Introduction: Mention Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure and significance of protecting infrastructures from climate risks.


  • Increasing climate risks for India: A recent report by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water found that 75% of districts in India, home to over half the population, were vulnerable to extreme climate risks. 
    • India witnessed 250 extreme climate events between 1970 and 2005. But it recorded 310 extreme climate events after 2005 alone. 
  • Loss due to climate change: Between 1990 and 2019, India incurred losses exceeding $100 billion. 

Way forward: 

  • Building climate resilience
  • Comprehensive Climate Risk Atlas
  • Financing climate action

Conclusion: Summarize the discussion