Q.1) Critically analyse the performance of the National Green Tribunal in safeguarding environmental rights. (150 words)
Why this question?
October 18 was a significant day, as it marked the 10th anniversary of the National Green Tribunal, or NGT.
Introduction: Since its inception, the NGT has, apart from creating a new breed of legal practitioners, protected vast acres of forest land, halted polluting construction activities in metros and smaller towns.
- Need for NGT
- Supreme court cases: M.C. Mehta & Anr. Etc vs Union Of India & Ors. Etc (1986), A.P. Pollution Control Board vs Prof. M.V. Nayudu
- Performance of NGT: halted polluting construction activities in metros and smaller towns, penalised errant officials and held large corporate entities to account.
- It has protected the rights of tribal communities and ensured the enforcement of the “polluter pays” principle in letter and spirit.
Conclusion: In its next decade, the NGT must continue to remain a proactive ‘inconvenience’ to all those who take actions that make economic growth ecologically unsustainable.
Q.2) The Court has to come down heavily on the States and the Centre to ensure that its directives regarding Police reforms are implemented. A bold step towards bringing down crimes is possible only when the politicians-criminals-police nexus is strangled. Discuss. (250 words)
Why this question?
Common Cause’s recent survey on the Status of Policing in India says that Police brutality in recent months has turned quotidian.
Introduction: In India, the political executive has the power of superintendence and control over the police forces to ensure their accountability. However, the Second Administrative Reforms Commission and the National Police Commission have noted that ministers have used police forces for personal and political reasons.
Directions of the Supreme Court in Prakash Singh vs Union of India
Model Police Act, 2006
- Holding police accountable: In India, the political executive has the power of superintendence and control over the police forces to ensure their accountability.
- Only six States provided a minimum tenure of two years to the Director General of Police (DGP).
Conclusion: Summarize and suggest a way forward to implement police reforms