Q.1) Much of India’s post-Independence conservation efforts have excluded the local and national development needs. In the context of above, critically analyze the issues faced during the implementation of the Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Recently, Karnataka Forest Minister announced that the state government would soon declassify nearly 67% of deemed forests in the state and hand it over to Revenue authorities. 

Intro - A brief about post-independence conservation efforts.

Body - 

  • Salient features of the FCA 1980
  • Issues faced by the act

Way ahead/ Conclusion - Balancing development and conservation needs.


Q.2) What are microwave weapons? How these weapons may change the future warfare? (10 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Recently, the Indian Army has rejected a report in a British daily newspaper, which claims that the Chinese army had used “microwave weapons” to drive Indian soldiers away from their positions in eastern Ladakh.

Intro - Start with the context.


  • About the weapons - Working
  • Significance - How it will change future warfare?

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.3) The primary health centres must be the central focus of public outlay. The private sector participation can be at other levels of speciality and at levels where they are better placed due to their innovative skills. Discuss. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • The Fifteenth Finance Commission has called for a greater role for public-private partnerships to ramp up the health infrastructure and scale up public spending on health from 0.95% of GDP to 2.5% by 2024.


  • Mention the need for upgrading India’s health infrastructure.



  • Poor health spending: The total spending of around 0.95% of GDP is not adequate in relation to the commitments under the National Health Policy of 2017. 
  • Skewed health infra: While India doesn’t have adequate health infrastructure but the poorest States have the worst health infrastructure. 

Need for collaboration with private sector:

  • More availability of funds
  • Innovative methods
  • Better efficiency

Conclusion/Way forward:

  • Public expenditure should focus on primary health care at the panchayat and municipality level.
  • A working relationship with the private sector: To achieve better healthcare parameters, public-private partnerships must be considered “in a holistic way” instead of the current situation where the government only turns to the private sector in times of emergency.


Q.4) The reorganisation of states in India is still an unfinished task. Discuss the above statement in the light of recent border dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Why this question?

Karnataka Chief Minister recently condemned comments by Maharashtra Deputy CM, over the border dispute between the two states as an attempt to “incite fire”.


Mention in brief about the ongoing tussle between these states


  • Origin of the dispute
    • British era status of Belagavi, Dharwad, and Uttara-Kannada.
    • Post-independence demand of  predominantly Marathi-speaking population
    • States Reorganisation Act: linguistic and administrative lines
  • The Mahajan Commission report
    • Recommendations
    • The response of both states
  • Current status of the case
  • Few suggestions


Mention the way of realising larger national aspirations.