Q.1) In order to make Indian Railways a lifeline of Indian economy and society in reality, there is the need  to address the inadequacies of capacity constraints and improve its modal share in the total freight ecosystem of the country. Comment (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? -  Indian Railways has come up with a Draft National Rail Plan, to address the inadequacies of capacity constraints and improve its modal share in the total freight ecosystem of the country.  

Intro - A brief about Indian railways.


  • Current status - Capacity, Freight etc.
  • Challenges
  • Steps taken

Way ahead - Implement National Rail Plan in letter and spirit

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion


Q.2) The United Nations (UN) has emphasised that the rights of minorities shall be respected, protected and preserved by the states and within individual territories. In this context, critically analyze the measures taken by the Indian government to safeguard minorities. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - The National Commission for Minorities celebrated "Minorities Day" by felicitating the COVID warriors from minority communities.

Intro - A brief about minorities in India.


  • Constitutional provisions
  • Steps taken by Indian govt
  • Challenges

Way ahead - How to overcome these challenges

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.3) One of the most significant provisions of the Indian constitution is Article  356. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, had opined that the provision was meant to be used only in the “rarest of the rare cases”. Discuss. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • The Supreme Court stayed in Andhra Pradesh High Court order intending to embark on a judicial enquiry into whether there is a constitutional breakdown in the State machinery under the Jagan Mohan Reddy government, requiring a declaration of President’s rule.

Introduction: Discuss about the recents incidences of the President's rule.


  • Article 356, significance
  • SR Bommai case
  • Recommendations by various commissions

Conclusion: Summarize with the way forward.

Q.4) Explain the significance of parliamentary committees in ensuring legislatures and executive’s transparency and accountability. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • Lessons should be learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic which saw unprecedented reverse migration, members of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs. Thus the question.

Introduction: Briefly provide the definition of parliamentary committee, types and mandate.

Body: Significance

  • deliberations and scrutiny by committees
  • obtaining public feedback
  • develop expertise in subjects
  • informed debate in Parliament

Conclusion:  Parliamentary committees increase the efficiency, expertise of Parliament and act as check and balance which must be constituted at the earliest.