Q.1) Article 32 is a right fundamental to all the fundamental rights guaranteed under the Constitution of India. Substantiate (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Recently, the Supreme Court of India observed that it is trying to discourage individuals from filing petitions under Article 32 of the Constitution. 

Intro - A brief about Fundamental rights and Article 32.


  • Salient features of Art 32
  • Significance of Art 32
  • Challenges

Conclusion/ Way ahead - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) There is a need for post-COVID-19 change in protocols, similar in scale to the post-war rebuilding efforts, to develop more sustainable and resilient cities. Comment. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • The Prime Minister invited the investors to invest in the Indian urbanization at the 3rd Annual Bloomberg New Economy Forum.

Introduction: Mention the impact of Covid-19 on global cities.


  • Significance of urban centers
  • Need for restart: Ensuring better housing facilities and work environments as well as shorter and efficient travel options for citizens. 
  • Sustainable Cities
  • New protocols: There is a need for post-COVID-19 change in protocols, similar in scale to the post-war rebuilding efforts
  • The centrality of the people in the recovery process.

Conclusion: The post-Covid world has to be built by nurturing people centric urbanisation.


Q.3) Cooperation among the BRICS countries is crucial for emerging polycentric world order.  Comment(250 words)

Why this question?

12th BRICS summit


The unprecedented threat of COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of the role of international cooperation.


  • In brief about BRICS countries
  • Mention cooperation in various fields
  • Mention Response by BRICS countries during the pandemic
    • Mention few problems in functioning of these initiatives such as resource mobilisation,coordination of steps etc
  • Mention ongoing standoff with China
  • Crucial role of BRICS
    • Couter terrorism
    • UNSC reforms
    • Vaccine cooperation etc

Way ahead:

Summarize the above discussion