Q.1) Structural Reforms are the focus for launching the Aatma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan amid COVID-19 pandemic by the government of India. Discuss. (15marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - Recently, the government of India announced the 4th Tranche of economic package under the Aatma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan(ANBA).

Intro - One can start with ANBA, the need for introducing it amid COVID-19 pandemic - making India self reliant.

Body - One can highlight the measures announced by the government for different sectors and how these measures are a step towards structural reforms - agriculture, power, aviation, defence etc.

One can also highlight the shortcomings of the ANBA and suggest a way forward.

Conclude: The pandemic has given the govt.s around the world an opportunity to reform their economies. ANBA shows govt of India’s eagerness to capitalize this opportunity for bringing structural reforms in the economy


Q.2)  India Nepal Relations have been dwindling for some time and the recent construction of a road in Lipulekh Region has made them reach a new low. Comment. 10 marks

Why this question:

Nepal has strongly objected to the new link road from India to China which was inaugurated by Defence Minister Rajnath Singh recently.


Give reference of recent road construction

Dwindling over Time:

  • Nepalis attacked in India - Accusation of Stealing jobs
  • Madhesi Community and India’s Tacit approval to Blockade
  • India’s Big Brother attitude
  • Nepal’s Inclination towards China ( It has also joined OBOR initiative)

A new low:

  • Nepal’s protest against a newly built Indian road in Uttarakhand, up to Lipu Lekh pass on the China border.
  • Tell about the road in brief
  • Protest is due to a dispute over Source of Origin of the Kali river which has made the Kalapani region and Lipulekh pass a disputed territory between India and Nepal.

Way Ahead:

  • Road is important for India for religious, strategic and trade relations.
  • Issues must be solved via prudent diplomacy 
  • Being a dominant power in the region , India must be cautious of interests of small neighbours and should not allow them to be completely aligned  towards the chinese side.


Q.3) Discuss the role and significance of the Commonwealth Group of Nations in the Coronavirus crisis.

Introduction to the answer:

  • Briefly tell about the Commonwealth and its chief organizations.
  • Write about the Coronavirus crisis.


  • Significance of Commonwealth: 
    • Global representation
    • Diversity within
    • Regional leadership
    • Addressing climate change
  • Challenges for the commonwealth nations 
  • India’s role as a health provider.

Conclusion: Provide a way forward

  • Bracing for a new normal: The Commonwealth collaboration has to come up with a different construct to prepare for the new normal.
  • A universal healthcare system:  There is a need for a Commonwealth-identified method for cost-effective and cost-efficient mechanism that will enable us to have universal coverage, which would enable us to respond to epidemic and pandemic health issues.
  • Digitalisation and sharing that knowledge between the member nations is important. This could be done by establishing common digital platforms and websites. 


Q.4) Discuss the issues that prompted India to exit from RCEP trade negotiation deal. Also analyse the hits and misses of such a move by India.

Keywords for Answer


  • Briefly open the RCEP trade deal and discuss its nature. A reference can be made to ongoing COVID-19 pandemic


  • Discuss the Issues with respect to India such as cross border transfer of electronic info, e-commerce chapter, absence of Auto trigger mechanism, Investor-State dispute settlement, Rules of Origin, Ratchet Obligations, etc..
  • Also discuss the pros and cons of such a move like Protection of domestic industries, in line with Make in India and Self reliance, on the other hand cons like missing out on opportunity to trade in the region, uncertainty over demand and Consumption in the COVID-19 situation, etc..


  • Conclude with a balanced approach towards trade deals, such as joining with better negotiations on the strengths such as services sector,labour intensive sectors and if not joining then undertake internal reforms to boost the economy and work upon contentious issues such as Data protection, IPR, custom tariffs, etc.


Q5)What are human challenge studies? Discuss the ethical issues involved. (150 words)

Why this question?

At a time when the whole world is focused on fighting against COVID-19, more than 20,000 people from 102 countries have enrolled on a US website to voluntarily infect themselves with the virus.


Unprecedented threat of COVID-19 and need of human challenge studies


  • Meaning
  • Problems of the conventional vaccine development process
  • Importance of human challenge studies
  • The ethical concerns
    • These are usually carried out in developing medications for diseases which are considered less lethal.
    • Critics have questioned undertaking such trials for Covid-19, a potentially deadly disease.
  • WHO guidelines


It is important to choose volunteers with care, with full disclosure is given and informed consent sought from them, before going ahead with the actual act of infection.