Q.1) The effects of flooding due to deluges can only be mitigated if urban planners take into account the hydro-geology of cities. Comment in the light of recent floods in Hyderabad. (250 words)

Why this question?

A deep monsoon depression over the west-central Bay of Bengal, which weakened as it moved over Telangana, resulted in downpours, severely affecting the city of Hyderabad as well.


Mention frequent occurrences of urban floods and related stats in India


  • About recent floods and meteorological backing
  • Reasons behind huge damages
    • Inadequate response
    • Construction over lake beds and encroachments of drainage channels 
    • Antiquated sewerage and drainage system etc
  • Elaborate why planners need to take into account the hydro-geology of cities
    • Role of water bodies
    • Maintaining drainage channels etc
  • Few more suggestions


Reference to the disaster management cycle


Q.2) The Coronavirus crisis is also an opportunity to adopt innovative solutions based on scientific evidence so that India can make food systems more resilient and sustainable. Discuss. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • 16th of October is being celebrated as World Food Day

Introduction: Food is the essence of life and the bedrock of our cultures and communities. COVID-19 poses a threat to food security and agricultural livelihoods. It also compounds the threats already faced by 690 million people around the world. 


  • Define food system
  • Challenges for India’s food security:
    • Multi-dimensionality of India’s food challenges: 
      • Malnutrition, Anemia
      • Intensified food production systems
      • Fragmentation of landholdings
    • Climate change 
  • Government initiatives:
    • Public distribution system
    • Agricultural productivity: India has gone from being a net importer to a net exporter of food grains. 
    • Dealing with climate change through the development of drought and flood tolerant seed varieties, weather-based agricultural advisories, promotion of millets, and small-scale irrigation. 
    • The Integrated Child Development Services 
    • The mid-day meal programme 

Way forward: A proper food system can be a powerful means to bring people together to grow, nourish and sustain the planet.

Conclusion: The government, the private sector, civil society and local communities — have a role to play in transforming our food systems so they can withstand increasing volatility and climate shocks, deliver affordable and sustainable healthy diets for all, and provide decent livelihoods for food chain workers.