Q) The abrupt announcement of the lockdown exposed the severe vulnerabilities of urban low-end informal jobs as the share of vulnerable employment is higher in India than that of the world or the South Asia region.The present crisis calls for a multi-pronged strategy to tackle the issue of urban jobs.Discuss. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • Due to the lockdown, the sectors that have been affected the most — construction (–50%), trade, hotels and other services (–47%), manufacturing (–39%), and mining (–23%) — are those that create the maximum new jobs in the economy. Thus the question.

Introduction: Mention the contraction of the economy and unemployment due to the Coronavirus crisis.

Body: Discuss the following aspects:

  • Vulnerable employment is characterised by inadequate earnings, low productivity and difficult conditions of work that undermine the basic rights of workers. 
  • Poor quality jobs in India: According to the International Labour Organization, of the 535 million labour force in India in 2019, some 398.6 million will have poor quality jobs.
  • Causes for high incidence of informality in India
  • Challenges

Way forward:

  • Urban employment generation in coordination with local governments
  • Expansion of MGNREGA 
  • Implementing employment-intensive investment policies: 
  • Invest in infrastructure

Conclusion: Summarize all the aspects of the answer.