Q.1) Critically analyse the performance of Phased Manufacturing Programme (PMP) for manufacturing of mobile phones in India.

Why this question?

  • The Ministry of Electronics and IT has approved 16 proposals by electronics manufacturers, including Samsung, Foxconn, Lava and Micromax, entailing an investment of ₹11,000 crore under its Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme. The PLI follows the phased manufacturing programme (PMP) which was launched in 2016-17. Thus the question.

Introduction: The PMP aimed to increase the share of locally-procured components in the manufacturing of mobile phones leading to the setting up of a “robust indigenous mobile manufacturing ecosystem in India.


  • Features of PMP
  • An assessment of PMP
    • Increased production
    • Lesser value addition
    • More imports of mobile components

Therefore, while the PMP policy increased the value of domestic production, local value addition remains a problem.

Conclusion: The PMP scheme does not complete the mobile manufacturing ecosystem. For example, though Samsung is invested hugely in India, it has not colocated its supply chain in the country. A first step in this direction could be to encourage foreign firms to colocate their supply ecosystems in the country.


Q.2 India is ignoring the necessity for strong capacity building of the many NGOs engaged in educational improvement. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

NGOs have high potential to improve the education system


Mention few stats related to NGOs in education sector


  • Current status of education sector
  • Implemenation hurdles in government policies
  • Potential of NGOs in human capacity building activities at grassroot levels
  • Problems associated
  • Mention few suggestions


Give reference to NEP,2020


Q.3) STARS project would address “the ‘learning outcome’ challenge and help students better prepare for the jobs of the future. Critically comment (250 words)

Why this question?

The Union Cabinet has recently approved the STARS project partially funded by the World Bank


Reference to NEP,2020 and its goals


  • About STARS project
    • Objectives
    • Components
    • Finance side etc
  • How it will focus on improving learning outcomes
  • Problems associated
  • Few suggestions for improving the project


Conclude with the mission of education for all