Q.1) The Covid-19 pandemic is an opportunity to strengthen India’s Public Health Surveillance system. Discuss (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Recently, NITI Aayog has released a white paper: Vision 2035: Public Health Surveillance in India.

Intro - Define PHS and link it with the context.

Body - 

  • Need for strengthening PHS
  • Gaps in India’s PHS
  • Steps taken

Way ahead - What more needs to be done.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Despite many initiatives, many Indians continue to go to bed hungry and are unable to afford nutritious diets. Discuss the reasons as well as the way forward. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - According to a Right to Food Campaign’s survey, people continued to go to bed hungry and are unable to afford nutritious diets because of loss of income, even six to seven months after lockdown.

Intro - Define hunger and state of hunger in India.

Body - 

  • Reasons for this poor state in India.
  • Initiatives by govt
  • Challenges

Way ahead - How to overcome the challenges.

Conclusion - Summarise based on above discussion.


Q.3) India is headed in the right direction towards reaching the replacement level of fertility. Analyse. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has released data fact sheets for 22 States and Union Territories (UTs) based on the findings of Phase I of the National Family Health Survey-5 (NFHS-5). 

Introduction: Give a brief definition of fertility and Total fertility rate (TFR).


  • NFHS 5 data on TFR
  • Decreasing trend of TFR in India: The total fertility rate (TFR) across most Indian states declined in the past half-a-decade, more so among urban women.
  • Significance of TFR: Both high TFR and TFR below-replacement level can be causes of worry for policy makers and planners. 

Conclusion: India needs to invest heavily in human capital, health and education for a healthy and productive population that can add to national and global accomplishments of the country. 

Q.4) India’s direct tax law needs to keep pace with fast-changing events. Discuss. (150 words)

Why this question?

  • The International Court of Arbitration ruled that the Indian government’s move to seek taxes from Vodafone using retrospective legislation was against the fairness principle. 

Introduction: Highlight the low percentage of direct taxpayers in the country and low recovery of taxes.


  • Significance of direct taxes
  • Recent direct tax reforms
  • Challenges

Way forward: 

  • Taxing MNCs

  • Rewriting the tax law

Conclusion: Summarize the above points