Q.1) With the world's second-largest population and a healthcare infrastructure that is not enough to meet the needs of the current population, India is not yet ready for a universal health coverage (UHC) programme. Critically analyze (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - Recently, the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has organized an event to mark Universal Health Coverage Day. 

Intro - Define UHC

Body - 

  • Advantages 
  • Initiatives by GoI
  • Challenges

Way ahead - How to overcome these challenges.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) The Western Ghats is a biological treasure trove that is endangered, and it needs to be “protected and regenerated, indeed celebrated for its enormous wealth of endemic species and natural beauty”. Discuss. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • Tropical montane grasslands (TMG) in the Shola Sky Islands of the Western Ghats have suffered big reductions due to invasions by exotic trees such as acacias, pines and eucalyptus.

Introduction: Give a brief info about the Western Ghats. Western Ghats host India’s richest wilderness in 13 national parks and several sanctuaries. It is recognised by UNESCO as one of the world’s eight most important biodiversity hotspots.


  • Ecological significance
  • Biodiversity hotspot

Threats and concerns: Pollution, deforestation, commercialization, invasive species, poor regulations etc.

Way forward: Kasturirangan Panel Report, Gadgil Report

Conclusion: Summarize the above points

Q.3) Nurses and midwives will be central to achieving universal health coverage in India. What are the challenges which need to be tackled to provide a robust nursing care in India. (250 words)

Why this question?

The National Nursing and Midwifery Commission (NNMC) Bill 2020 which is meant to replace the INC Act 1947, is under consideration. 

Introduction: Mention the significance of Nurses and midwives in India’s health infrastructure and the current state of the sector.



  • The ratio of 1.7 nurses per 1,000 population is 43% less than the World Health Organisation norm; it needs 2.4 million nurses to meet the norm. 
  • The Indian Nursing Council Act covered only the educational aspect of nursing. There were no norms for service and patient care. There are no fixed details of the nurse to patient ratio, staffing norms and salaries.
  • Gaps in skills and competencies
  • Regional imbalance
  • There is little demand for postgraduate courses
  • Multiple entry points to the nursing courses and lack of integration of the diploma and degree courses diminish the quality of training. 
  • Nurses in India have no guidelines on the scope of their practice and have no prescribed standards of care. This may endanger patient safety. It is a major reason for the low legitimacy of the nursing practice and the profession. 
  • The mismatch of the role description and remuneration that befits the role sets the stage for the exploitation of nurses.
  • Migration of qualified nurses

Conclusion: Summarize the above points and provide a way forward.