Q.1) To ensure maximum public participation,  the language of the governance should be made understandable to the population of the country. In this context, discuss the legal - constitutional provisions with respect to the Official Languages in India. (15 marks - 250)

Why this question? - Recently, the Chief Justice of India (CJI) held that the Official Languages Act can be amended to make it up to date.

Intro - A brief about the evolution of the Official Languages in India.

Body -

  • Other constitutional provisions with respect to the Official Languages in India.
  • Challenges faced as a result of legal - constitutional provisions wrt Official Languages. 

Way ahead - Implementing the Pahwa (1996) and Sitakant Mohapatra (2003) Committees recommendations, This proposed (Constitutional Amendment) Bill.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Organic farming will help India to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. Comment (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - In a world battered by the COVID pandemic, the growth story of organic farming is unfolding with increasing demand not only in India but also globally. 

Intro - This is an opportune moment to be captured for a win-win situation for Indian farmers, consumers and the environment, as the demand for healthy and safe food is showing an upward trend and hence.

Body - 

  • Status of organic farming in India.
  • Govt. initiatives
  • Challenges faced

Way ahead - How to overcome the challenges.

  • Reviving the past: Natural farming is not a new concept in India, with farmers having tilled their land without the use of chemicals - largely relying on organic residues, cow dung, composts, etc since time immemorial.
  • Integration of the elements: Such as soil, water, microbes and ‘waste’ products, forestry and agriculture is the correct recipe.
  • Sustainable use of natural resources: Which are coming under severe stress due to ever increasing requirement of food and feedstock for agri based industry. 

Conclusion - Hence with greater awareness and capacity building of the producers, Indian organic farmers will soon be reinforcing their rightful place in global agri trade and will help India in achieving SDG 2 targeting - end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.


Q.3) Comment on the present phase in India-United Kingdom bilateral relations.

Why this question?

India is going to celebrate its Independence day. On 15th August, 1947, India got independence from Britain.

Introduction to the answer:

  • Briefly discuss the historic relations between India and U.K

Body: Discuss the following parameter of bilateral relations between India & UK:

  • Trade relations
  • Defence relations
  • International cooperation
  • Cultural relations
  • Significance


  • Brexit
  • The stalled EU-India FTA negotiations 

Conclusion: Provide a way forward addressing the challenges mentioned above. 

  • Speeding up the conclusion of a bilateral free trade pact between India and the UK as well as India and the EU. 


Q.4) COVID19 is bringing out the best again in India-Maldives relations. Discuss. (10M, 150 words)

Why this question?

  • India announced new connectivity measures for the Maldives, in an effort to help it deal with the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Mention in brief about India’s Covid-19 assistance for Maldives which includes recently announced connectivity projects.



  • Background of India-Maldives cooperation: Operation Cactus, Asian tsunami assistance
  • Maldives’ dependence on imports for subsistence, given the size and saline nature of the available land
  • Challenges like Covid impact, China’s influence in Maldives

Conclusion: India must pay close attention to all these emerging challenges. Dramatic changes await the foreign policy choices of the archipelago nation as well as of the world beyond it.