Q.1) In the light of a recently released report by the World Bank titled “Beaten or broken: Informality and COVID-19”, analyze the impact of COVID-19 on learning outcomes.

Why this question?

World Bank has recently released a latest South Asia report titled “Beaten or broken: Informality and COVID-19


Mention the unprecedented threat of COVID-19 in various sectors brief.


  • Key findings of the report
    • As many as 5.5 million students could drop out of schools across South Asia.
    • Dropouts, combined with substantial learning losses for those who remain enrolled in schools, would cost the South Asia region as much as $622 billion in future earnings.
    • The average child in South Asia may lose $4,400 in lifetime earnings once having entered the labour market.
    • The extended closure of schools amid the coronavirus pandemic could dent India’s future earnings by anywhere between $420 billion and $600 billion.
    • Impact of COVID-19 has kept 391 million students out of school in primary and secondary education.
    • The projected learning loss for the South Asia region is 0.5 years of learning-adjusted year.
  • The interrelation between other sectors of the economy
    • Increased integration of the global economy will amplify the adverse impact
    • The efforts of contagion prevention and physical distancing may render some activities, for example the hospitality sector, unviable.
    • Adverse impact of lower human capital and labour productivity over the long term.
  • Mention few suggestions to reduce the impact


Steps taken by India and the proper implementation



Q.2) Discuss the key features of US–India Strategic Energy Partnership (SEP). (150 words)

Why this question?

  • NITI Aayog announced the governing structure of the India Energy Modelling Forum (IEMF). Thus the question.

Introduction: The SEP recognizes the strategic importance of energy to the U.S.-India bilateral relationship. The SEP builds upon long standing energy partnership and sets the stage for meaningful engagements through robust government-to-government cooperation and industry engagement.

Body: Key features of SEP

  • Four primary pillars of cooperation: (1) Power and Energy Efficiency; (2) Oil and Gas; (3) Renewable Energy; and (4) Sustainable Growth.
  • AsiaEDGE initiative, which establishes India as a strong energy partner in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • Research and development (R&D) through the U.S.-India Partnership on smart grids and energy storage to increase resilience and reliability of the electric grid
  • Renewable energy
  • India Energy Modeling Forum 

Conclusion: In the midst of a global pandemic with an enormous human toll that is also affecting energy demand, global energy markets, and sustainable energy growth, the U.S.-India Comprehensive Global Strategic Partnership has never been more vital.