Q.1) Examine the significance of India-Italy relations in light of the Coronavirus crisis. What should be the way forward for enhancing their cooperation in the  post Coronavirus crisis global order?

  • Why this question: Recently both India & Italy courageously decided to strike a fine balance between the need to restore industrial activities and supply chains and the duty to continue protecting their citizens from the spread of the novel coronavirus.
  • Introduction of the answer: Give a brief background of India Italy economic and political relations.
  • Body: Discuss various measures taken by both the countries in kick starting their economies in the Coronavirus crisis. Highlight the common points in them between Lockdown 3.0  & Phase 2 of Italy.
  • Significance
    • Solid manufacturing base: Like India, Italy is also a country whose economy has a solid manufacturing base. 
    • The geopolitical dynamics between India and Europe 
    • The partnership between India and Europe in upholding the liberal order becomes a priority. India does not have the capacity to do it on its own and needs support from like minded nations like Italy.
      • Balancing China by building its internal capacity: India’s current capacity is not enough in the short to medium term. India has been widening the network to engage with like-minded countries.
    • Bringing public goods and global commons to focus:
      • G20: Italy and India will be holding the consecutive Presidencies (Italy in 2021 and India in 2022) of the G20, one of the world’s main fora for global governance. 
      • Fight against climate change: Italy will co-host the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties, COP26, in 2021, together with the United Kingdom, and India is one of the world’s major responsible stakeholders.

Way forward:

  • Both countries should shape the international discourse around priorities that both countries hold dear.
  • Supporting an effective multilateral system, which would be the best political accelerator to win our battle against the novel coronavirus and to promote a sustainable, equitable and durable recovery. 
  • Improving trade: the potential of India and Italy as trade partners can be further explored if India and European Union (EU) sign the Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) which has been in negotiation for over 11 years without conclusion.


Q.2) Rajya Sabha has equal powers in consonance with Lok Sabha. Discuss. 10 marks.

Why This Question:

The dwindling performance of Rajya Sabha and it being used as a tool to impede governance as per some experts have raised questions upon the efficacy of the house. 


Tell Parliament comprises the President and two houses as per Article 79.

Equal powers:

  • Ordinary Bills and Constitutional Amendment bills
  • Removal of President, SC and HC Judges
  • The PM can be elected from either house etc..

Special Powers of Rajya Sabha:

  • Creating All India Services
  • Resolution for removing Vice President
  • Resolution for allowing Parliament to make law on State list subject in the National Interest

Limitations on power of Rajya Sabha:

  • Money Bill , Budget
  • No Confidence Motion
  • Joint sitting


Although powers are the same in major domains but both have some additional power over one another to ensure stability in the country while at the same time upholding the federal interest of states.


Q.3) Many exigencies have tested the foundations of our federal democracy, but none as harshly as this pandemic. Comment (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - As the nation fights COVID-19 pandemic, Centre-State relations and the spirit of federalism are once again in question.

Intro - One can start with the definition of federalism and highlighting provisions in the Indian constitution that makes India a federal democracy.

Body: Tell briefly about exigencies that have tested India’s federal democracy like reorganisation of states. Then tell challenges posed by the current pandemic like top-down approach by the central govt., states lacking funds.

Way forward: Reaffirming cooperative federalism and adequate fund transfer to the States.


Q.4) You must not use a steam hammer to crack a nut, if a nutcracker would do.In the light of this statement, define doctrine of proportionality and its need to maintain checks and balances.

Why this question: The Court in anuradha Bhasin Case declared that the freedom of speech and expression and the freedom to practice any profession or carry on any trade, business or occupation over the medium of Internet enjoys constitutional protection under Article 19(1)(a) and Article 19(1)(g) respectively. 

  • Maintain the balance: While such freedom is not absolute, the restrictions imposed on it should be in consonance with the mandate under Article 19(2) and Article 19(6) of the Constitution, inclusive of the test of proportionality, the bench ruled.

Intro:  define doctrine of proportionality   and discuss article 32 of Indian constitution


  • Discuss the significance of the doctrine 
  • Explain how it maintains the checks and balances.


Suggest some ways to strengthen this balance


Q.5) The timing of India to become the next Chairperson of the World Health Organisation’s decision-making body is crucial. Discuss (150 words)

Why this question?

Recently External Affairs Minister of India attended a seven-nation virtual meeting of Foreign Ministers, convened by U.S. Secretary of State, which appeared to be part of the US’s efforts to gain support for its move to effect changes at the WHO.


In brief about the timing of taking over during an unprecedented health crisis of COVID-19


  • Details about India’s take over
    • Replacing Japan.
    • Likely to hold the post for the next three years.
  • Challenges ahead
    • US-China tussle
    • Controversy regarding according Taiwan observer status
    • Criticism of role of the WHO during the pandemic
    • Funding issues


Suggest a way forward while doing away with the challenges associated.