Q.1) Increasing the pension coverage is a humongous task as only five per cent of the eligible population has been covered under Atal Pension Yojana(APY) till date. Discuss (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - APY completed 5 years on 9th May 2020.

Intro - A brief about the yojana.

Body - Salient features: Beneficiary - unorganized sector etc. Achievements: 2.23 crore subscribers etc. Challenges: still only 5% of beneficiaries are covered etc.

Way forward - continuous proactive initiatives for achieving exponential growth and addressing unexpected scenarios etc.


Q.2) e-NAM was launched in 2016 but progress was slow, especially as many States did not amend their APMC Acts. Critically analyse the reasons behind the slow progress of e-NAM.

Why this question?- Number of mandis registered with e-NAM have increased post lockdown.

Intro- Briefly introduce e-NAM and its salient features.

Body- Reasons behind slow progress

  • APMC Act, States reluctance to change their respective acts, Mandis not registering with e-NAM as the number of farmers registered are less, dearth of large suppliers, most farmers were not part of the cooperatives that would help aggregate the bulk quantity of produce needed to interest online buyers and most mandis did not possess the infrastructure to make the most of the platform.
  • Govt. initiatives: a trading module allowing Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) to trade produce directly from their collection centres without bringing it to mandis, a warehouse-based trading module and a logistics module offering users trackable transport facilities through aggregators with access to 11 lakh trucks.

Conclusion: Provide a way forward

The user base remains at a nascent stage, with 1.66 crore farmers, 1.3 lakh traders and 71,911 commission agents registered on the platform. There are more than 13 crore farmers in India. However, an encouraging sign is the more than 1,000 FPOs which are registered on the platform, providing access to their members.


Q.3) Discuss the relevance of the Second Chamber (Rajya Sabha) in the Indian Parliamentary System.

250 words

Why this question:

The dwindling performance of Rajya Sabha and it being used as a tool to impede governance as per some experts have raised questions upon the efficacy of the house. 


Tell About Article 80 of the Constitution.


  • Better Deliberation
  • Acts as a check on abuse of power
  • Representative of states at National level
  • Provides a way for experts/specialists to enter parliament


  • Impedes functioning by creating stalemates
  • Difficult to function especially in case of coalition government
  • A gateway for leaders who lose popular elections


Need to reform the house as it upholds federalism which is part of basic structure. Abolition is not a way out as it has key significance so much that in matters of establishing All India service, Passing resolution for making  laws on state subject etc.. it even has a superindence over Lok Sabha.


Q.4)The decision of the Review Bench in the Sabarimala Case to refer  the questions of law raised in the case to a larger Bench, though guarded by 142,but riddled with issues. Critically Analyse.

(15M, 250 words)

KeyWords for Answer

  • Intro 
    • Briefly Introduce the majority judgment of a Constitution Bench in the Sabarimala Case In September, 2018.
  • Body:
    • Enumerate and explain the criticism and defense of the Apex court’s decision.
    • For e.g. by doing so, the judicial process would seem to be indulging in the exposition of law outside the realm of the facts of the case.
    • It was questioned how a Bench sitting in a limited review jurisdiction assumed powers to frame new questions of law. 
    • Defense: Article 142 of the Constitution which enables this court to make any order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it.
  • Also discuss in brief the other questions of law like interplay between religious freedom and rights of religious denominations under Article 26 of the Constitution, etc.
  • Way Forward: The process should not be arbitrary, rather guided by laws and conventions.


Q5)Discuss the contribution of Gopal Krishna Gokhale in the freedom movement of India. (250 words: 15 Marks)

Why this question?

The Prime Minister recently paid tributes to Gopal Krishna Gokhale on his birth anniversary.


G.K Gokhale is considered a remarkable personality blessed with immense wisdom, he made outstanding contributions towards education and social empowerment. He also provided exemplary leadership to India’s freedom movement


  • Early Life
  • Arrival on the national scene(Welby Commission of 1897)
  • A liberal politician
  • Extensive work in colonial legislatures
    •  Bombay Legislative Council (1899 and 1902)
    • Imperial legislature( from 1902 till his death)
  • Work in the Indian National Congress
    • President at its Banaras session in 1905
  • Servants of India Society,1905
  • Role as Mahatma Gandhi’s political mentor


Gopal Krishna Gokhale in his active public life for the freedom movement of India spanning for thirty years laid the foundation for modern India.