Q.1) Discuss the major causes of recent conflict between India and Nepal. Also, suggest some measures to resolve the issue.

Why this question: Recently, Nepal’s House of Representatives unanimously approved the tabling of an amendment to the country’s constitution which will now formally depict nearly 400 sq km of Indian territory extending west from the Lipulekh Pass, and including it, as part of Nepal’s sovereign territory. 

Intro: introduce with recent conflict over kalapani between India and Nepal


  • Discuss the major cause of dispute such as the treaty of sugauli and other immediate causes.


  • Conclude with way ahead and significance of India and Nepal relations.


Q.2) India lifted the ban on export of hydroxychloroquine, what is the relevance of such a move ? Comment. 10 marks ( 150 words)

Why this question:    

The Department of Pharmaceuticals has approved the lifting of the ban on Export of Hydroxychloroquine API as well as formulations.


Start with a background like The DGFT on 4 April had banned export of hydroxychloroquine, which is being used to treat covid-19 based on limited evidence and then give current context,


Tell about Hydroxychloroquine:

  • It is a medication used to prevent and treat malaria in areas where malaria remains sensitive to chloroquine. 
  • This medication is also used, usually with other medications, to treat certain auto-immune diseases (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis) when other medications have not worked or cannot be used. 
  • It is taken via the oral route.  
  • It is sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others. 
  • It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
  • It is also being studied as an experimental treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).  

Significance of Drug / Reason why Ban is lifted

  • Two Indian firms, Ipca Laboratories and Zydus Cadila Ltd, are the world’s largest manufacturers of the drug. Hence export can generate sufficient foreign exchange for India.
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research has also been using the drug to prevent infection among healthcare workers based on theoretical evidence that hydroxychloroquine does not allow the novel coronavirus, or SARS-COV2, to attach to cells.
  • It can also serve as a tool to augment India’s Soft power in Covid -19 affected countries as the country can supply the drug at minimum price to underdeveloped and vulnerable regions.


The drug has a potential to curb the spread of virus across the globe but wide scale usage is possible only when WHO gives a nod for its usage against covid 19.


Q.3)Analyze the impact of COVID-19 on India’s financial sector. Also suggest a way for Indian banks so that they will emerge leaner and stronger from the pandemic. (250 words)

Why this question?

COVID-19 has impacted the Indian economy significantly.


Unprecedented threat of COVID-19 


  • Mention the background of India’s financial sector 
    • GNPA
    • retail sector etc
  • Impact on various stakeholders
    • Middle classes
    • HNIs
    • Corporates
    • MSMEs
  • Impact on investment demand
  • Suggestions for the financial sector


Mention digitization of processes


Q.4) Critically analyse the performance of National and state human Rights bodies.

Why this question?

In its report on human rights in India, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has informed the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) that the recommended implementation of a universal basic income was “under examination and active consideration” of the Centre.


  • About the National Human Rights Commission and State Human Rights Commissions.


Performance of NHRC

  • Recently, the Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI), a UN body based in Geneva, re-accredited India’s apex rights watchdog with the ‘A’ status, a perfect score
  • NHRC statistics claim that cases are resolved within months and compensation is granted in 90 per cent of them.
  • As per the data there is disposal of more than 17 lakh cases, payment of more than Rs 1 billion to victims of human rights violations, carrying out over 750 spot enquiries of human rights violations, apart from conducting over 200 conferences to spread awareness of human rights across the country.
  • Interventions in the 2007 Nandigram violence in West Bengal and Salwa Judum-related incidents in Chhattisgarh

Criticism: The Supreme Court while hearing cases relating to alleged encounter killings in Manipur observed that the NHRC has been most unfortunately reduced to a toothless tiger.

  • They play an advisory role, with the government left free to disobey or even disregard their findings.
  • Flawed process of verifying complaints: NHRC actually sends it to the police station which would have refused to take action in the first place.
  • Impunity for Armed Forces: The Act does not authorise the Commission to inquire into complaints of violations of human rights committed by the members of the armed forces.
  • Custodial deaths, one of NHRC’s focus areas, shot up from 444 to 5,496.


Way forward:

  • Critical amendments to ‘Protection of Human Rights Act’ needed: NHRC and SHRC must be invested with the power to impose penalties, resist political interference in investigations and be independent of partisan law enforcement bodies
  • The Act should be amended to give power to the  Commission to enforce its decisions.
  • An amendment to the act is needed to change the criteria from CJI to former SC judge for its chairperson and to mandatorily include women members in the five-member commission.
  • Annual reports for calendar years should be put online as soon as possible and no later than March of the succeeding year.



Q.5) A greater capability by India to patrol up to the Line of Actual Control (LAC) coupled with an increasingly assertive Chinese posture is a potential disaster. Explain. (10M, 150 Words)

Why this question?

  • In agreement reached between India and China on June 6 for a partial disengagement of troops from some of the points of stand-off along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a step in the right direction.


  • India-China border issue
  • Mention recent India-China skirmishes.


  • India’s border road development.
  • Significance:The Standing Committee on Defence, in its 2017-2018 report, noted that “the country, being surrounded by some difficult neighbours, with a view to keeping pace, construction of roads and development of adequate infrastructure along the borders is a vital necessity”.
  • This helps in effective border management, security and development of infrastructure in inaccessible areas adjoining the China Border and lack of it creates difficulties as seen during the 2017 Doklam Standoff.

Point of contention

  • India-China Border talks
  • China’s point:Clarifying perceptions of the LAC could help, but China has stalled the process as they are afraid the LAC will become the boundary.
  • India’s point: India doesn't want to negotiate one common line, but negotiate a line that Chinese don’t cross, and another line that India  doesn't cross.


  • Provide a way forward for peaceful negotiations.
  • China is way ahead of India in military capabilities so all out ‘hard halancing’ on the border will not be correct. Use of soft power is recommended.