Q.1) As a result of  legislative changes and judicial pronouncements, the inheritance law in India has evolved to ensure gender equality. Discuss (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - Recently, the Supreme Court of India expanded on a Hindu woman’s right to be a joint legal heir and inherit ancestral property on terms equal to male heirs.

Intro - A brief about inheritance rights enjoyed by women in India.

Body - 

  • Salient features of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 along with its shortcomings.
  • Amendments to the 1956 act in 2005.
  • Judicial pronouncements.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) Recent demographic data about India suggest that the aspirational revolution is already under way. Discuss. (10 M, 150 Words)

Why this question?

A new study by the Seattle-based Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) says that as the 21st century closes, India’s population will be about 1.09 billion instead of approximately 1.35 billion today. It could even be as low as 724 million.


  • Mention some important takeaways demographic studies of India like the IHME data and UN Data.
    • Fertility decline: By the year 2100, Indian women will have 1.29 children. Since each woman must have two children to replace herself and her husband, this will result in a sharp population decline. 
    • The UN projects that India’s population will be 1.64 billion by 2050, the IHME projects 1.61 billion by 2048. 

Body: Mention the following points

  • Reasons behind declining fertility trends in India
    • Aspirational revolution: The socioeconomic transformation of India since the 1990s

    • Agriculture’s share of India’s GDP declined and school and college enrolment grew sharply and people started finding a job.
    • Rethink of family-building strategies: Earlier farmers used to have more children to produce more workers, while the new aspirational parents seem to demonstrate increased commitment to family by reducing the number of children and investing more in each child. 

Conclusion: Demographic data suggest that the aspirational revolution is already under way. We should ensure that the health and family welfare system provides contraception and sexual and reproductive health services that allow individuals to have lesser children.


Q.3) Isolation, lawlessness, and the lingering bitterness produced by regional wars have made it difficult for India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka to open borders for trade. Opine. (10 M, 150 words)

Why this question?

India’s goods exports to neighbours fell to 7% in 2019-20, reflecting the extent of our deteriorating relations with some neighbours.

Introduction: Mention data about India’s trade relations with major neighbouring countries- Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Pakistan. Highlight the falling trend.

Body: Analyze the reasons behind falling trade relation:

  1. Border disputes
  2. Trade barriers: para-tariffs, high logistical costs, inadequate infrastructure, and high informal trade, other non-tariff barriers (NTBs),
  3. Ineffective trade deals like SAFTA
  4. A weak SAARC

Provide a way forward to address these challenges like removing trade barriers, regional integration etc.

Conclusion: For India and her neighbours, a stronger political will is required to combat barriers to trade in the region, especially after the COVID-19 crisis, which may result in unleashing a new wave of protectionist measures.


Q.4) The digitization of our healthcare system can unlock new possibilities of treatment and patient care, and thus transform the Indian health system. Comment (250 words)

Why this question?

The National Digital Health Mission recently released a Strategy Overview document that laid out the National Health Authority’s (NHA’s) plan to build India into a Digital Health Nation.


Mention the plan to build India into a Digital Health Nation.


  • Mention provisions in the document
    • Data portability
    • Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture (DEPA)
    • Storing the data as close as possible to the point of its generation:
  • Benefits of the move
    • Easier for patients to get second opinions
    • Creation of a personal health record
    • Unlocking the new possibilities
  • Suggestions
    • Maintaining same digital standards across India
    • Integration of data


Mention the need to remember that urgency to build the digital health infrastructure India needs is only surpassed by the risk of not getting it right.