Q.1) SCO provides a platform for India to simultaneously engage with its traditional friend Russia as well as its rivals, China and Pakistan. Analyze (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question?: Recently, the 20th Summit of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Council of Heads of State was held. 

Intro: A brief about SCO.


  • Importance of SCO for India
  • Challenges

Way ahead: How to overcome the above mentioned challenges.

Conclusion: Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.2) The Disaster Management Act fails to identify progressive events as disasters, thus neglecting pressing public health issues such as tuberculosis and recurrent dengue outbreaks. Discuss. (250 words)

Why this question?

  • The Disaster Management Act is one of the few laws invoked since the early days of COVID-19 to further a range of measures — from imposing lockdowns to price control of masks and medical services. Thus the question.

Introduction: Mention the significance of medical preparedness in disaster management.


Brief info about Disaster Management Act, 2005

Challenges during disasters:

  • A reactive approach :Had pre-existing diseases been treated as disasters, they would have attracted stronger action in terms of prevention, preparedness, and response. 
  • Weak regulations over private sector
  • Overcharging by hospitals
  • Business interests

Way forward:

  • Strong public sector capacities 
  • Integration of disaster management with primary care 
  • Synergies with the National Health Mission

Conclusion: Summarize the above points.