Q.1) Though right to marry is a fundamental right, couples involved in interfaith marriages are often being harassed. In this context, critically analyze the provisions of the Special Marriage Act, 1954. (15 Marks - 250 Words)

Why this question? - The recent remarks by the Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana indicate that they want to ban religious conversion for the sole purpose of marriage.

Intro - The Special Marriage Act, 1954 (SMA) was enacted to facilitate the marriage of couples professing different faiths and preferring a civil wedding. 

Body - 

Conditions for a valid marriage under SMA. 

Objections to the marriage under the law.

Hurdles faced by couples:

  • Provisions relating to notice, publication and objection. 
  • Objection by family members. 
  • Political propaganda.


  • Violate the privacy of the couples.
  • Violates the right to equality. 

Way ahead - Judgements of court and Recommendation of Law commission of India. Best practices, if any.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.1) Critically analyse the performance of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP). (150 words)

Why this question?

This year, there have been more farm fires than the previous year and their contribution to Delhi's winter air pollution remains unchanged. Thus the question.

Introduction: Mention the need for controlling air pollution.


  • About National Clean Air Programme (NCAP), objectives
  • Concerns:
  • Poor imposition
  • Inadequate funds
  • Delay in setting up  ‘performance parameters for states
  • Pollution data shortage
  • Inadequate staff

Conclusion: While funds are critical, proper enforcement, adequate staff and stemming the sources of pollution on the ground are vital to the NCAP meeting its target.


Q.3) What is mission Shakti? Also, explain its significance in the geopolitical context.

Why this question?

A model of Anti Satellite (A-SAT) Missile installed inside the DRDO Bhawan premises was unveiled recently by Raksha Mantri.


In brief about India’s achievement is the field


  • Details of Mission shakti
    • Origins
    • Components
  • Mention it’s Significance
    • India as the fourth nation in the world with the capability to defend its assets in outer space
    • Outer space race etc
  • Few suggestions in the geopolitical context


Summarize the above discussion


Q.4) The first National Agricultural Education Policy is set to bring academic credit banks and degree programs with multiple entries and exit options. Explain its significance along with the challenges associated.

Why this question?

A six-member committee of Vice-Chancellors has been asked to submit a draft policy document to the Agriculture Ministry next month


In brief about agricultural education in the country


  • Details about the move
  • Significance
  • Challenges in the implementation
  • Few suggestions


Mention the importance of Agricultural Education for India