Q.1) The Quit India movement changed the character of the Indian freedom struggle with the masses rising up to articulate that the Britisher would have to Quit India. Comment (15 marks - 250 words)

Why this question? - On August 8, 1942, Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India movement, giving the call for British colonists to “Quit India” and for the Indians to “do or die” to make this happen. 

Intro - A brief about the QIM.


  1. Background of the movement.
  2. Launch of the movement and course of the movement.
  3. How the QIM is different from earlier movements.

Conclusion - The movement gave a clear message to the Britishers that ruling over India is no more possible.


Q.2) The new or fresh paradigm in the India-US relationship should be on understanding and structuring the ties in sync with common India-U.S. perspectives. Comment (15 marks - 250 marks)

Why this question? - As India-U.S. ties propels, the new model should be on how to structure common understanding with the China factor in mind.

Intro - A brief about India-US ties.

Body - 

  • How this relationship evolved?
  • Need for a new paradigm in relationships.
  • Challenges ahead

Way ahead - Give and take relationships that will serve each other's interests.

Conclusion - Summarize based on above discussion.


Q.3)India’s de-emphasizing learning Mandarin is neither likely to impact China’s stance on the border, nor help India in developing the expertise and resources it needs in dealing with China. Critically comment (250 words)

Why this question?

Recently Confucius Institutes in India were put under the scanner.


  • Mention that India’s Ministry of Education sent a letter to several institutions seeking information about the activities of their Confucius Institutes (CIs) and Chinese language training centers. 


  • Details of the steps taken by India
    • As a part of a review of work being done by higher education institutions in partnership with foreign entities.
    • Mandarin has been dropped from the list of foreign languages that can be taught in schools in the new National Education Policy.
  • Background of India-China cooperation in the education space
  • Worldwide perspective of these institutes
    • Some universities have already closed the institutes amid concern over the influence of the Chinese government on host institutions.
  • Positive aspects of the move
    • Mention Border issues
  • Probable negative aspects 


Summarize the discussion in brief.


Q.4) Discuss the critical role played by the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) in providing a specialist response to various disasters in the country. (250 words)

Why this question?

Recently, NDRF conducted rescue operations after an Air India Express flight crash-landed in Kerala’s Kozhikode.


Mention that teams of rescuers from the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are now a familiar sight at most of the natural calamities or man-made disasters in India.


  • Origin of NDRF in DM act, 2005
  • The constitution of NDRF and its structure
  • Diverse role of NDRF
    • Relief, rescue, evacuation operations during all the major natural or man-made disasters in the country.
    • Floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, structure collapses, and even some cases of retrieval or radiological materials. 
    • NDRF teams have also responded to road and train accidents, and also boat capsizes.
  • Suggestions to improve the DM architecture 
    • Upgradation of technology
    • Coordination with other forces etc


  • Mention that NDRF will remain the main national agency, however, there is an urgent need to build efficient State Disaster Response Forces (SDRFs) across states.