Q.1) The Micro Small and Medium Enterprises(MSME) sector is the driver of economic growth and employment generation in Indian economy. Comment and discuss the challenges faced by the MSME sector in India. (15 marks - 250 words)
Why this question? - The MSME sector in India is always in news due to different issues faced by sector and government initiatives taken. Also, it is a labour intensive sector, hence important for the socio-economic development of the nation.
Intro - First tell what constitutes MSME sector in India.
Body - Potential of MSME sector(Data on its share in GDP and employment generation can be quoted)
Then tell the challenges taken by the government, like fiscal indiscipline, lack of infrastructure, limited capital and knowledge and Non-availability of suitable technology etc.
Then mention government initiatives to address these challenges - like PBBloanin59min etc.
Conclusion - Regular monitoring and tech upgradation are essential for holistic development of MSME sector in India.
Q.2) The Indian Labour faces multiple problems which just got aggravated amidst the COVID 19 lockdown. Keeping this in mind, elaborate on the Indian Labour Movement under the colonial rule with specific emphasis on the role of B.R Ambedkar and also illuminate some steps taken by the Government for Labour welfare. 250 words
Why this question:
May Day or International Labour Day was observed on May 1.
Start by highlighting its importance that labour is the fundamental unit of production. It is the real creator of the wealth of nations.
Problems Faced Amidst Lockdown:
- Lay off/ Loss of livelihood
- Low wages or no salary during lockdown
- Deaths due to hunger and malnutrition
- Psychological Stress (Away from Home)
- Rising unemployment in future (The International Labour Organisation (ILO) has come out with an alarming report that 40-crore workers in India are at risk of falling deeper into poverty)
Indian Labour Movement:
- Began during French and British rule
- Early Trade Unions - Jute workers Calcutta 1854, Madras Press Workers 1903 and AITUC (All India Trade Union Congress) 1920
- Inspired by International events like Haymarket Affair of 1886, Russian Revolution etc..
- Role of Ambedkar:
- As the representative of the Depressed Classes in the Round Table Conference, Ambedkar forcefully pleaded for living wages, decent working conditions and the freedom of peasants from the clutches of cruel landlords.
- He went on to form the Independent Labour Party (ILP) in 1936
- As a member of Bombay Legislative assembly in 1937 -
- He introduced a bill to abolish the Khoti system of land tenure and opposed the introduction of the Industrial Disputes Bill, 1937 because it removed the workers’ right to strike.
- As a Labour member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council from 1942 to 1946 , he piloted and introduced measures for labour welfare by laying the foundation for the basic structure for the government’s labour policy.
- Through the Mines Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill 1943, he empowered women workers with maternity benefits.
Steps by Government:
- Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojna
- Shram Suvidha Portal
- Amalgamation of numerous laws into 4 labour codes
- Relief camps for food distribution etc..
- On any proactive note like linking development of labour with reaping of demographic dividend.
Q.3) Renewable sources of energy have been the “most resilient” to Covid-19 lockdown measures. Discuss. (150 Words-10 Marks)
Why this question?
- With lockdowns imposed in several countries, transportation such as road and air travel has been largely restricted, due to which global energy demands have plummeted.
Introduction of the answer:
- Mention how Covid-19 lockdowns have impacted the global energy sector. Cite the IEA report, crude oil price fall.
- However, the demand for renewables is expected to increase because of low operating costs and preferential access for many power systems. Renewable energy is expected to grow by 5% this year, to make up almost 30% of the world’s shrinking demand for electricity.
- Significance of renewables: The growth of renewables despite a global crisis could spur fossil fuel companies towards their goals to generate more clean energy
- It is expected that emissions will soar once economies restart, unless governments take a conscious decision to change the sources of energy
Q.4) In the light of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom(USCIRF) report,2020, comment on India’s image as multi-religious democracy and the implications associated.
Why this question?
The U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) has recently downgraded India to the lowest ranking.
Plurality of religions in India, Reference to Ashoka and his tolerance of different religious sects etc
- Mention few details of the report
- Concerns associated
- Placing of India alongside countries, including China, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.
- First time since 2004 that India has been placed in ‘countries of particular concern’ category.
- India’s rejection of the report
- As world’s largest democracy
- Soft Power
Unity in Diversity,Reference to Constitution regarding secularism.
Q.5) Delineate the need of Intellectual Property Rights in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.
In this light discuss the patent regime of India and also highlight the issues associated.
Types of IPR in brief
Patent- Significance and Importance
COVID-19 pandemic and the need for Vaccine
Collaborative approach to development of vaccine
India’s patent law-1970
National IPR policy
Issues -3(d), Section 84