Q.1) As the UN prepares for its 75th anniversary, there is a need to discuss traditional and new challenges faced by the world today. In this context, discuss the opportunities for India in shaping the new world order.

Why this question? - As the UN prepares for its 75th anniversary, the world is grappling under the corona crisis.

Intro - Start by mentioning traditional(climate change) and new challenges(lack of trust among nations) faced by the world today.

Body - 

  • Discuss each of these challenges briefly. Tell the nature of these challenges in the present world order.
  • Mention India's position with respect to traditional and new challenges.

Way ahead - If India wants to be “rule shapers” rather than being “rule takers”, then there is the need to start working in partnership at blueprints for change. It is never too early to plan for the future.

Conclusion - The need for India is to envisage the new order and its own role in it as well as who our partners in this venture are to be.


Q.2)Even in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, investments in digital services continue to flow at record levels globally. However, Indian government policies will be key determinants in attracting new investment in the sector. Discuss (15 marks-250 words)

Why this question?

With the unprecedented threat of COVID-19 globally, economic growth has plunged, and the competition for foreign investment is intensifying.


  • Mention unprecedented threat of COVID-19 globally and that economic growth has plunged so the competition for foreign investment is intensifying


  • Worldwide scenario of FDI during the crisis
    • Mention findings of World Investment Report
  • Significance of digital services sector during the crisis
    • Differences with other sectors of the economy
    • Utilisation of these during the crisis
    • Mention Indian perspective as well
  • Pending reforms in India’s growth trajectory in digital services
    • Three pending reform measures
      • The Personal Data Protection Bill (PDPB)
      • The e-commerce policy, and 
      • The Information Technology Act Amendments
    • Unclear policies
    • Uncertain India-US trade relationship
      • Mention U.S. initiation of a “Section 301” review of digital services taxes.
  • Suggestions
    • Long term approaches
    • Becoming a global leader in the digital sector etc


Mention India will be a host of the G20 nations in 2022 with a focus on good governance in the digital sphere.


Q.3) The recent death of Father and Son in a Tamil Nadu Police Station has again brought the question of custodial violence to the center stage. 15 marks (250 words)

Why this question:

Recently a father and son allegedly died in Santhakkulam Station, Tamil Nadu due to police excesses conducted in judicial custody. They were detained for violating the lockdown restrictions. 


Can start by defining custodial death and highlighting current news


Why Custodial Violence ?

  • To get evidence quickly
  • Show to authority
  • To circumvent their anger on masses
  • No Fear of law

Impact of such Violence:

  • Enhances the gap between police and citizens: Resulting in citizens fearing to report the crime.
  • Inculcates a sense of impunity: In the minds of officials that in spite of misusing the power, they can get away freely.
  • Sets a wrong precedent for the honest officials: Who follow proper rules and operate under the ambit of law.
  • Creates a bloat on the justice system: Wherein extrajudicial killings are portrayed as accidents or mishappenings.
  • A major issue of human rights concern: And one of the root obstacles to democracy and the development of human well being in contemporary societies as the act devoids a nation of its most important resource i.e people.
  • Makes extradition of criminals difficult: Given the poor state of prisons in India, such instances make extradition of criminals from various countries tougher into India.

Measures to improve the situation:

  • Follow D.K Basu Guidelines on Custodial Violence
  • Establish Police Complaint Authority as per Prakash Singh Guidelines
  • Police and Local Magistrate Sensitization
  • Ratifying UN Convention against torture
  • Formulating a National Law on Torture Prevention


Instances of Custodial Violence can be curbed only when proactive measures are taken at all levels from citizens to higher police officials.


Q.4) The recent ban on 59 smartphone applications fails to pass the test of legality. Comment. 10 marks (150 words)

Why this question:

Recently 59 apps were banned by the Government owing to security concerns.


Tell about the news of banning applications.


Tell the rationale in brief:

  • Privacy of Citizens
  • Security of Nation

Why it fails test of Legality:

  • It is a mere press release and not a legal order as per Section 69A of I.T Act, 2000.
  • No concrete grounds mentioned
  • It is not a resonated or speaking order
  • No mention of China in press release
  • Not examined on floor of the house


Robust discussion must take place in parliament along with passing of the pending data protection bill so as to curb instances of privacy breach in future.


Q.5) Discuss the significance of Digital India programme in the Coronavirus crisis.

Why this question?

  • A conference was organised by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to celebrate 5 Years of Digital India progressing towards Digital Bharat - AatmaNirbhar Bharat. 

Introduction to the answer:

  • About Digital India, objectives, pillars and schemes
  • Pandemic crisis


Performances so far

  • Digital India as digital saviour : In the current pandemic scenario, people are able to work from home, people are able make digital payment, students are able to learn through TV, Mobile and Laptop, patients are able to take tele-consultation, and farmers in remote corner of India is able to get PM-KISAN benefits directly in their bank accounts.
    • Medical role: Aarogya Setu for its ground-breaking development time of 3 weeks and localisation in 12 Indian languages with 13 crore downloads, with additional 3 crores for Kai OS, has helped identify over 350 COVID-19 hotspots. 

Way forward:

  • Public-private partnership models in e-Government Development should be built on four dimensions-
  1. Government as an enabler of technology, 
  2. as a customer of Technology, 
  3. as a platform provider and 
  4. the Government as collaborator to provide solutions. 

Conclusion: The building of Aatma Nirbhar Digital Systems calls for development of in-house capacity and capability to drive economic and social development of the country.