csir-cmeri-develops-sustainable-municipal-solid-waste-processing-facility

Context: The CSIR-CMERI developed Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility has not only helped achieving Decentralised Decimation of Solid Wastes, but has also helped create value-added end-products from waste.

Need 

  • The changing ecological scenarios requires special attention to address the issue of ‘Sustainable Processing of Municipal Solid Waste’.
  • This CSIR-CMERI MSW Technology envisions a Zero-Landfill and a Zero Waste City in addition to developing Job-Creation opportunities.  

Features of Municipal Solid Waste Processing Facility

  • Bio-methanation Plant: CSIR-CMERI has started an innovative technology of producing the Biogas from grass and weeds and Vermi-composting of Slurry of the plant process. 
    • The Bio-Digestion process adopted has minimum pollution factor. 
    • The MSW facility has special disinfection capabilities to help Break the COVID Chain through UV-C Lights and Hot-Air Convection methods. 
    • The Smokeless Stove has also been developed to utilize these briquettes. 
    • Such stoves have the benefits of Reduction in import of LPG and reduction in pollution.
  • Towards targeting a Zero landfill, the latest technology being used by Institute is Pyrolysis process wherein conversion of plastics into gas and fuel are done. 
    • Heavy oil, gas being used in pyrolysis helps in obtaining self-sustainability.  
    • Through Plasma Gasification Process also eco-friendly disposal of solid wastes is processed without formation and reformation of toxic dioxins and furans.
    • Solid Waste Disposal using Plasma Arc convertes wastes into plasma state for proper disposal. 
    • Wealth out of waste: The residues generated having good carbon content are used in agriculture as fertilizer and non-usable are utilized to make bricks for construction purposes. 
  • The Solar energy technology, which can also feed the surplus Energy Supply onto a Mini-Grid.
  • It can result in drastic reduction of expenditure related to Transportation Logistics and can help reductions in CO2 emissions, by reducing fossil fuel usage. 

Composting 

  • It is the natural process of recycling organic matter, such as leaves and food scraps, into a valuable fertilizer that can enrich soil and plants. 
  • Fondly referred to by farmers as “black gold,” compost is rich in nutrients and can be used for gardening, horticulture, and agriculture.

Benefits of Composting

  • Reduces the Waste Stream

  • Cuts Methane Emissions From Landfills

  • Improves Soil Health and Lessens Erosion

  • Conserves Water

  • Reduces Personal Food Waste

Disadvantages of composting:

  • The mixed nature of wastes in the current scenario can easily lead to infiltration of heavy metals into agricultural produce.
  • Ineffective processing of Wastes are the root of all diseases as the dumped Landfills become the Contamination Hubs for Pathogens, Bacteria and Viruses. 
  • They also cause emission of Methane Gas, especially during the churning mechanisms deployed during Composting processes. 
  • Composting also does not yield impactful economic returns for the entrepreneurs.